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4 Steps to Help You Make Difficult Decisions Quickly. This story first appeared on The Muse, a Web destination with exciting job opportunities and expert career advice.

4 Steps to Help You Make Difficult Decisions Quickly

Most people hate making decisions. Why is that? They overcomplicate it. Fear of picking the wrong option leads to a period of limbo where nothing gets done and the issue seems to grow bigger and bigger. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmet. Kohlberg's theory of moral development outlines a series of six developmental stages that children go through as they develop morality.

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmet

How Exactly do Children Develop Morality? This question has fascinated parents, religious leaders, and philosophers for ages, but moral development has also become a hot-button issue in both psychology and education. Do_our_moral_judgements_need_to_be_guide. Moral Reasoning. 1.

Moral Reasoning

The Righteous Mind. The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion is a 2012 social psychology book by Jonathan Haidt.

The Righteous Mind

In the book, Haidt describes human morality as it relates to politics and religion. Haidt attempts to reach common ground between liberals and conservatives. Haidt argues that people are too quick to denigrate other points of view without giving those views full consideration. Haidt himself acknowledges that while he has been a liberal all his life,[1] he is now more open to other points of view.[2] Reception[edit] The book received positive reviews[3] and was #6 on the New York Times' best seller list for non-fiction in April, 2012.[4] See also[edit] The Happiness Hypothesis. The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom is a 2006 psychology book by Jonathan Haidt written for a general audience.

The Happiness Hypothesis

In it, Haidt poses several "Great Ideas" on happiness espoused by thinkers of the past - Plato, Buddha, Jesus and others - and examines them in the light of contemporary psychological research, extracting from them any lessons that still apply to our modern lives. Central to the book are the concepts of virtue, happiness, fulfillment, and meaning. Social psychology. Social psychologists therefore deal with the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, and look at the conditions under which certain behavior/actions and feelings occur.

Social psychology

Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists. As a broad generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena (see group dynamics).[3][page needed] History[edit] Jonathan Haidt. Education and career[edit]

Jonathan Haidt

Elliot Turiel. Elliot Turiel (born in 1938) is an American psychologist and Chancellor’s Professor at the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley.

Elliot Turiel

He teaches courses on human development and its relation to education. Education[edit] Turiel completed his PhD in Psychology from Yale University and was a student of Lawrence Kohlberg, who had a strong influence on his work.[1] Moral reasoning. Moral reasoning is a study in psychology that overlaps with moral philosophy.

Moral reasoning

It is also called moral development. Prominent contributors to the theory include Lawrence Kohlberg and Elliot Turiel. The term is sometimes used in a different sense: reasoning under conditions of uncertainty, such as those commonly obtained in a court of law. It is this sense that gave rise to the phrase, "To a moral certainty;"[1] however, this sense is now seldom used outside of charges to juries. Lawrence Kohlberg. Lawrence Kohlberg (/ˈkoʊlbərɡ/; October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) was an American psychologist best known for his theory of stages of moral development.

Lawrence Kohlberg

He served as a professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Chicago and at the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic while a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago[1] in 1958, and expanded upon the theory throughout his life. The six stages of moral development are grouped into three levels: pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality.

For his studies, Kohlberg relied on stories such as the Heinz dilemma, and was interested in how individuals would justify their actions if placed in similar moral dilemmas. He then analyzed the form of moral reasoning displayed, rather than its conclusion,[6] and classified it as belonging to one of six distinct stages.[7][8][9] Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget (French: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss clinical psychologist known for his pioneering work in child development.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual. "[12] Piaget's theory and research influenced several people. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 while on the faculty of the University of Geneva and directed the Center until his death in 1980.[13] The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory.

Free Numerology Reading. Over ten years ago my fiancée Wendy dragged me out of the house to meet a master numerologist visiting our town, Christchurch, in New Zealand. Back then I didn’t think much of numerology, and neither did my scientist colleagues, especially ‘Iron-head’ John. However, numbers always fascinated me so I decided to listen to what the mysterious numerologist had to say. Horacio, I was stunned! Listen to the story he told me: Schumpeter: The holes in holacracy. The Mind's I. Chapter 2: On Having No Head. The best day of my life – my rebirthday, so the speak – was when I found I had no head. This is not a literary gambit, a witticism designed to arouse interest at any cost.

I mean it in all seriousness: I have no head. It was about eighteen years ago, when I was thirty-three, that I mad the discovery. Are Conservatives More Likely Than Liberals to Avoid Cognitive Dissonance? Ever since Stanford psychologist Leon Festinger's pioneering work on doomsday cults in the 1950s, the concept of cognitive dissonance has been well established in psychology and even, to some extent, embedded in public consciousness. Basically, when the mind is faced with an idea that is threatening to one's identity or sense of self—an idea that induces unpleasant dissonance—one tends to try to either avoid the thought or, perhaps, reinterpret it into something unthreatening or positive. Thus, in Festinger's landmark work, a doomsday cult interpreted the failure of the world to end on the precise day they had predicted as evidence that their beliefs were right in the first place!

But do liberals and conservatives differ in their tendency to avoid cognitive dissonance? Suggestive evidence from past research suggests they might. In fact, some conservatives sounded rather miffed after taking the study, leaving comments like: "Not for all the tea in China would I write that. "