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Information retrieval is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on metadata or on full-text (or other content-based) indexing. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called " information overload ". Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications .
Lady Justice is the symbol of justice . Lady Justice is depicted as a goddess equipped with three symbols of justice: a sword symbolising the court's coercive power; scales representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed; and a blindfold indicating that justice is or should be meted out objectively, without fear or favor, regardless of power, money, wealth, or identity. [ 1 ] Law is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition, [ 2 ] but one definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. [ 3 ] Laws are made by governments , specifically by their legislatures . The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics and society in countless ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people .
Health care (or healthcare ) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease , illness , injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine , chiropractic , dentistry , nursing , pharmacy , allied health , and other care providers . It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care, as well as in public health .
Show Clipboard  Free fulltext only 22,018 Middle Aged 3.1 million Evaluation Studies as Topic 2.7 million
In production and development, open source is a philosophy , or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details [ citation needed ] . Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of terms for the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet , and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code . [ 1 ] Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. [ 2 ] The open-source software movement arose to clarify the environment that the new copyright , licensing , domain , and consumer issues created. [ citation needed ] Generally, open source refers to a program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design.
An application programming interface ( API ) is a protocol intended to be used as an interface by software components to communicate with each other. An API is a library that may include specification for routines , data structures , object classes , and variables. An API specification can take many forms, including an International Standard such as POSIX , vendor documentation such as the Microsoft Windows API , the libraries of a programming language, e.g. Standard Template Library in C++ or Java API . An API differs from an application binary interface (ABI) in that an API is source code based while an ABI is a binary interface.
Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards . It can assist an organization to assess any aim, realisable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making; or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in regard to the aim and objectives and results of any such action that has been completed. [ 1 ] The primary purpose of evaluation, in addition to gaining insight into prior or existing initiatives , is to enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. [ 2 ] Evaluation is often used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises, including the arts , criminal justice , foundations , non-profit organizations , government , health care , and other human services.
A production system (or production rule system ) is a computer program typically used to provide some form of artificial intelligence , which consists primarily of a set of rules about behavior. These rules, termed productions , are a basic representation found useful in automated planning , expert systems and action selection . A production system provides the mechanism necessary to execute productions in order to achieve some goal for the system. Productions consist of two parts: a sensory precondition (or "IF" statement) and an action (or "THEN"). If a production's precondition matches the current state of the world, then the production is said to be triggered . If a production's action is executed , it is said to have fired .
Knowledge representation (KR) is an area of artificial intelligence research aimed at representing knowledge in symbols to facilitate inferencing from those knowledge elements, creating new elements of knowledge. The KR can be made to be independent of the underlying knowledge model or knowledge base system (KBS) such as a semantic network . [ 1 ] [ edit ] Overview
In computer science and information science , an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain , and the relationships between pairs of concepts. It can be used to model a domain and support reasoning about entities. In theory, an ontology is a "formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation". [ 1 ] An ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which models a domain with the definition of objects/concepts, as well as their properties and relations. [ 2 ] Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence , the Semantic Web , systems engineering , software engineering , biomedical informatics , library science , enterprise bookmarking , and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework . [ edit ] Overview
From Semantic Web Standards Overview This Wiki contains a collection of tool references that can help in developing Semantic Web applications.
OntoStudio is the most widespread commercial modeling environment for creating and maintaining ontologies. It stands out due to its comprehensive functions in intuitive ontology modeling. OntoStudio is also able to import many structures, schemas and models. Some of OntoStudio’s most important functions are the mapping tool, which can be used to match heterogeneous structures quickly and intuitively, the graphic rule editor which specialists can use to model complex correlations or the integrated test environment that assures the quality of the modeling at all times.
TopBraid Composer is an enterprise-class modeling environment for developing Semantic Web ontologies and building semantic applications. Fully compliant with W3C standards, Composer offers comprehensive support for developing, managing and testing configurations of knowledge models and their instance knowledge bases. TopBraid Composer is the leading industrial-strength RDF editor and OWL ontology editor, as well as the best SPARQL tool on the market.
From Semantic Web Standards This page contains information on books that are strictly on the Semantic Web and Linked Data . There are, of course, lots of other books on Knowledge Representation, Logic, XML, Databases, etc, that are all relevant for the Semantic Web, but adding these to this list would be counter productive… Keeping such list up-to-date is obviously a problem. It can be hoped that the community at large will help maintaining these pages.
W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004 New Version Available: OWL 2 (Document Status Update, 12 November 2009) The OWL Working Group has produced a W3C Recommendation for a new version of OWL which adds features to this 2004 version, while remaining compatible. Please see OWL 2 Document Overview for an introduction to OWL 2 and a guide to the OWL 2 document set. This version: http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-features-20040210/