Comparison of free and open-source software licenses. This is a comparison of published free software licenses and open source licenses. The comparison only covers software licenses with a linked article for details, approved by at least one expert group at the FSF, the OSI, the Debian project, or the Fedora project. Free software / open-source licenses The terms "free software licenses" and "open-source licenses" are usually interchangeable.
While there is no one universally agreed-upon definition of free software, various groups that maintain approved lists of licenses. Free Software - provides freedoms to use, study, share (copy), and modify the software. General comparison The following table compares various features of each license and is a general guide to the terms and conditions of each license. Approvals This table lists for each license what organizations from the free software community have approved it – be it as a "free software" or as an "open source" license – and how those organizations categorize it. Gutenberg 3D, un proyecto educativo basado en la impresión 3D. El Ministerio de Educación del Gobierno de España ha seleccionado como el mejor de los 53 proyectos presentados de mejora del aprendizaje de los alumnos el denominado Gutenberg 3D, basado en la impresión 3D, al que ha subvencionado con 150.000 euros. El proyecto trata de potenciar el uso de las impresoras 3D en la práctica docente y en el mismo poarticipan 111 profesores y 989 alumnos de 11 institutos españoles sostenidos con fondos públicos: IES EL PALMERAL, -Orihuela- Alicante IES JUAN DE LA CIERVA, Madrid IES LUIS DE LUCENA, Guadalajara IES JOAN MIRÓ, -San Sebastián de los Reyes- Madrid IES MARIA MOLINER, Segovia IES TORREÓN DEL ALCAZAR, Ciudad Real IES VIRGEN DE LAS NIEVES, Granada IEFPS DON BOSCO -Errentería- Guipúzcoa INSTITUTO LA GARROTXA -Olot- Girona C.I.F.P.
SANTA CATALINA -Aranda de Duero- Burgos IES POLITÉCNICO JESÚS MARÍN, Málaga Cada centro da su particular enfoque a la ejecución del proyecto. El Instituto Don Bosco, por ejemplo, ha programado las siguientes actividades: Grupo Sicnova presenta su primera impresora 3D | SICNOVA. Grupo Sicnova ha presentado su primera impresora 3D, Sicnova JCR 1000, en la feria sectorial 3D Print Show de Madrid, que alberga el Palacio de Cibeles entre hoy y mañana. Este nuevo dispositivo, desarrollado íntegramente en España por el departamento de I+D+i de Grupo Sicnova, está dirigido a clientes de todo el mundo, sobre todo para el sector industrial y la ingeniería gracias a sus ventajas diferenciales: volumen de impresión, variedad de materiales admitidos, velocidad y precisión.
Sicnova JCR 1000 es una impresora 3D de gran formato, con un volumen de impresión de 1.000 x 600 x 600 mm. Una de sus principales bazas es la gran cantidad de materiales que admite para la impresión: PLA, ABS, nylon, hard rubber, PVA, PP, PC, HIPS, material con fibra de carbono y en general cualquier material capaz de trabajar entre 180ºC y 350ºC, con un extrusor de 1,75 mm. El hardware de la impresora incluye características propias que aseguran una gran calidad, con una precisión de hasta 50 micras. 269.pdf. Clean Enclosure Offers 2-Step Filtration to Clean Up 3D Printing Process, Enhance Performance.
Now that 3D printing is becoming a more established technology rather than a shiny new unknown, certain realities are beginning to take center stage. Some are looking more at the design aspect, with intellectual property (IP) often at the forefront of increasing legal debate. On the hardware side of the 3D printing space are concerns about the actual process of additive manufacturing, including the effects the process has on the surrounding environment. Enclosed 3D printers are more popular for home projects, as no one wants to breathe in dangerous fumes or unpleasant odors. These concerns are exacerbated even further in homes with small children, elderly family members, or even omnipresent pets, all of whom are especially susceptible to airborne discomforts.
We’ve seen a few enclosures for open model 3D printers, including the BuzzBox, which was successfully funded on Kickstarter in January. Some of the specs for the system include: Frame, Dimensions, and Weight: ¿Para qué sirve ese cilindro situado en el extremo de nuestros cables? Amendments to the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directives: Solid Engineering. < Previous article Thursday, 2015-03-12 07:57 Age: 15 Days The companies CEMDAL and Solid Engineering have reached a collaborative agreement to facilitate the conformity process of their products with regarding the compliance with the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive.
This process is required because any electrical equipment, machinery or fixed installations that are sold within the European Union must be in conformity with, at least, two European Directives, as well as any other regulations applicable to their specific type, if these exist. In the case of machinery, the products must also comply with the Directive for Machinery Safety. The two aforementioned compulsory European Directives are the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (CEM) and the Low Voltage Directive (LVD). CEMDAL and Solid Engineering have joined forces to adapt, as soon as possible, to the changes that the enforcement of this new regulation within the year will imply. Esquema Nueva Directiva CEM. 3DPrintClean Enclosure Offers 2-Step Filtration to Clean Up 3D Printing Process, Enhance Performance. Potential health hazard from 3d printers - Makers' Block. The migration of 3D printer technology from factories to homes has triggered mainstream excitement about the technologys potential.
But what buyers of these systems may not have considered is the potential health risk posed by toxic nanoparticles. Hobbyist may now have to consider this potential risk when operating a 3-D printer in an indoor environment. Research out of the Illinois Institute of Technology showing that commercially available desktop 3-D printers emitted potentially harmful nanoparticles that could accumulate in indoor environments.
Published in the academic journal Atmospheric Environment (“Ultrafine particle emissions from desktop 3D printers”), it showed that common, commercially available domestic 3-D printers emitted between 20 and 200 billion ultrafine particles (UFPs) per minute. UFPs are nanoparticles because their diameters are no larger than 10 nanometers. This wide size range is due to the different types of printing technology used. Credit: IEEE Spectrum. DIMA 3D - Materiales para impresión 3D. Pre-REACH compared with REACH. Legislative basis In 1967, the first major piece of European chemical supply legislation was published which set the framework for the control of dangerous chemicals.
With the exception of finished pharmaceuticals, direct food additives, radioactive substances, ammunition etc, the Dangerous Substances Directive 67/548/EEC, and the myriad of Directives spawned from it, formed the basis of all subsequent chemical control Directives. A list of frequently cited Directives is given below and most of these have added to the gene pool of REACH. An early political paper on REACH is also cited and this lays out the concepts of REACH and the reasons we have it. Directive 67/548/EEC The ‘mother' Directive; describing the need to regulate chemical supply in Europe and laying down the requirements for Notification and classification and labelling Directive 88/379/EEC First preparations Directive Directive 91/325/EEC Classification and labelling (see 93/21/EEC) COM(2001) 88 Final 27 February 2001.
Reach.pdf. NTP_219.PDF. TABLE Z-1 Limits for Air Contaminants. - 1910.1000 TABLE Z-1. NOTE: Because of the length of the table, explanatory Footnotes applicable to all substances are given below as well as at the end of the table. Footnotes specific only to a limited number of substances are also shown within the table. Footnote(1) The PELs are 8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling limit. They are to be determined from breathing-zone air samples. Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr. Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact; when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate. Footnote(c) The CAS number is for information only. Footnote(e) This 8-hour TWA applies to respirable dust as measured by a vertical elutriator cotton dust sampler or equivalent instrument.
Footnote(2) See Table Z-2. Footnote(3) See Table Z-3 Footnote(4) Varies with compound. ABS General Purpose | Commodity Polymers | Thermoplastics | Natural & Synthetic Polymers | Material Categories | Chemical, mechanical, physical and environmental properties of materials | Matbase: the independent online material selection resource. Pre-REACH compared with REACH. Review of Materials that Can Be 3D Printed at Home. Other Common Plastic Types: Acrylics, ABS, SAN-AS, Methacrylates, Epoxy, Latex Rubber, Melamine, Neoprene, Nylon, Kevlar, Polyester, Polyurethane, Spandex, Lycra.
Combustion Toxicology - Shayne C. Gad, Harold L. Kaplan - Google Llibres. Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials - Krzysztof Pielichowski, James Njuguna - Google Llibres. 3D Printer Exhaust to Redirect Noxious Fumes. EMC Testing Part 3 – Fast Transient Burst, Surge, Electrostatic Discharge. EMC Testing Part 3 – Fast Transient Burst, Surge, Electrostatic Discharge By Eur Ing Keith Armstrong C.Eng MIEE MIEEE, Partner, Cherry Clough Consultants, Tim Williams C.Eng MIEE, Director, Elmac Services Both Associates of EMC-UK This is the third in a series of seven bi-monthly articles on ‘do-it-yourself’ electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing techniques for apparatus covered by the European EMC directive.
Of course, what is low-cost to an organisation of 5000 people could be thought fairly expensive by a company of 50, and might be too expensive for a one-person outfit, but we will cover the complete range of possible costs here so that no-one is left out. This series does not cover management and legal issues (e.g. how much testing should one do to ensure compliance with the EMC Directive). The topics which will be covered in these seven articles are: 1) Radiated emissions 2) Conducted emissions 3) Fast transient burst, surge, electrostatic discharge 4) Radiated immunity 3.6Surge. ABS hazards | Sentry Air Systems, Inc. Images source: thingiverse.com Excited about 3D printing?
Pretty sure you’ll have one at home or in your office? You and everybody else: between 35,000 to 40,000 desktop 3D printers were sold in 2012 estimates one manufacturer, who expects a doubling of those numbers this year. As you consider your acquisition, please include a well thought out ventilation plan for your printer and its surrounding space. By ventilation, we don’t mean a fan that blows fumes around a room. We mean ventilation that removes the fumes from the room so you don’t breathe them. UFP and 3D printers [See the green sidebar for definitions of acronyms.] Most 3D printers use feedstock filaments made of polymers, typically PLA and ABS.
The filaments are melted by the printer’s heating element and laid down in very, very thin layers to produce 3D objects. Each type of filament is manufactured from different ingredients and each has a different melting point. What did the authors find? Understanding particle size is important. Health Risks of Plastics | Sustainably Verdant ™ Chemical Structure of Styrene Acrylonitrile Copolymer Plastic products are everywhere.
More and more we are discovering there are health risks that make these convenient products not so desirable. Plastics are releasing harmful chemicals into our air, foods, and drinks. While studies are showing the health risks of plastics, they are also overtaking our landfills. Every bit of plastic that has ever been created still exists (except for the little bit that has been incinerated, which releases toxic chemicals). According to Healthy Child Healthy World, the best thing to do is to reduce your use of plastic. The most common plastics have a resin code in a chasing arrow symbol (often found on the bottom of the product). PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate): AVOID Common Uses: Soda Bottles, Water Bottles, Cooking Oil Bottles Concerns: Can leach antimony and phthalates.
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene): SAFERCommon Uses: Milk Jugs, Plastic Bags, Yogurt Cups Source: Healthy Child Healthy World Like this: Ensinger-Manual_06.pdf. Is 3D Printing Safe? or DIY Testing for HCN from ABS and Nylon 3D Print Material. ABS. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is a commonly used thermoplastic as it is lightweight and can both be injection molded and extruded. It has better mechanical properties than HDPE and less brittle than PLA but handles higher temperatures better for applications such as extruder's and X-carriages setups without a fan. ABS is good because it is easier to buy and requires less force to extrude than PLA as it has a lower coefficient of friction.
This makes its extrusion characteristics better for small parts, compared to PLA. The downside of ABS is that it has to be extruded at a higher temperature: Its glass transition temperature is ~105 °C. ABS creates mild, tolerable fumes while being extruded. 200-250 °C, depending on your particular plastic. Sample temperatures with a Makergear 0.5 mm hotend: Ultimachine Red ABS: 215 °C Ultimachine Natural ABS: 230 °C There has been some evidence that pigment may affect extrusion width. Pigment can also affect the ideal nozzle temperature. HEPA. HEPA-Filter with functional description High-efficiency particulate arrestance or HEPA is a type of air filter. Filters meeting the HEPA standard have many applications, including use in medical facilities, automobiles, aircraft and homes.
The filter must satisfy certain standards of efficiency such as those set by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). To qualify as HEPA by US government standards, an air filter must remove (from the air that passes through) 99.97% of particles that have a size of 0.3 µm or larger. A filter that is qualified as HEPA is also subject to interior classifications. Function HEPA filters are composed of a mat of randomly arranged fibres. Diffusion predominates below the 0.1 μm diameter particle size. Lastly, it is important to note that HEPA filters are designed to arrest very fine particles effectively, but they do not filter out gasses and odor molecules. Specifications Biomedical applications Vacuum cleaners 
3D Printering: Wherein ABS Is Dangerous. A lot of the ‘prosumer’ – for as much as I hate that word – 3D printers out there like the Makerbot Replicator and countless other Kickstarter projects only officially support PLA filament. This has a few advantages from a product development standpoint, namely not necessitating the use of a heated build plate. There are other reasons for not supporting ABS and other filaments, as one of the Kickstarter updates for the Buccaneer printer elucidates (update available to backers only, here’s a mirror from somebody on reddit).
The main crux of the Buccaneer team’s decision not to support ABS is as follows: We spoke to our legal counsel about it and they told us that if we officially support a certain “material” type then our printer has to go through massive certification to prove that it is totally safe to use or we will/can get sued badly. Oh wow actual studies. There are a few studies referenced by the Buccaneer team’s update, so we’re going to go over these one by one.
Well, no. Evaluation of respiratory effects of thermal decomposition products... Beyler_Hirschler_SFPE_Handbook_3.pdf. FDM Thermoplastics Model Materials Spec Sheets and MSDS. Polyvinyl Compounds, Others - Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry - Hallensleben. ABS.pdf. Effects of single and repeated exposures to thermo-oxidative degrad... ABS. Is ABS give off "toxic" fumes? | RoBo3D Printer Forums. ABS Safety - Solidoodle Wiki. CE Marking: Know your standards. CE Marking: Know your standards LSR’s Test Services Division commonly answers questions regarding selecting the appropriate standards for demonstrating conformity to the essential requirements of the EC Directives when CE Marking a product. So, we thought we’d put together a quick blog to identify some terminology and provide a basic explanation to the hierarchy of requirements.
For these examples, we’ll use the EMC Directive 2004/108/EC, but the steps are similar regardless. First, It is important to understand CE marking and how it relates to conformity. Directive 93/68/EEC establishes the scope, structure, and application for CE Marking, which is the official terminology as specified by the EU (in lieu of the term “CE Mark”); and signifies Declaration of Conformity by the manufacturer. Currently, there are 32 countries that participate in the New Approach, perform market surveillance, and require CE marking. This provides a visual outline of the hierarchy of Directives. 3D Printed Speaker Pushes Rapid Prototyping Boundaries.
60950-1-搜索结果. List of IEC standards. List of EN standards. Webstore.iec.ch/preview/info_iec60950-1%7Bed2.0%7Den_d.pdf. IEC 61000-4-2-2008_百度文库. EMC(电磁兼容性)_EMI(电磁干扰)-电源网技术频道. EN 55022 CISPR 22. EN 55024 CISPR 24. EN 55022:2006 + A1:2007 + A2:2010 and EN 55024:1998 + A1:2001 + A2:2003 will be replaced respectively by EN 55022:2010 and EN 55024:2010 on December 1st, 2013. | cn. New versions of EN 55022 and EN 55024 | EMC and Regulatory Compliance.
EM-EIMC0000-BA0.pdf. Unsafe products LVD. EN 55024:2010. Information Technology | EMC Integrity: EMC emissions and immunity testing services for commercial, military and aerospace industries. Ciclop liberado con licencia CC-BY-SA | DIWO. New EU CE Marking 'Blue Book' Guide | CE Marking Association.
Information Technology Equipment Safety Standards. AEI Cables - BS EN 50525-2-31 Table B1. OFICIAL EUROPA. Electric Cable Manufacturer | Top Cable. ARTÍCULOS - Consultoría en Compatibilidad Electromagnética CEM y marcado CE. Support — Formlabs. The 2015 3D Printer Guide. Dimensiva | Free 3d models of great designs for the professional community. 30 things being 3D printed right now (and none of them are guns) | Technology.
Honda 3D Design Archives. 3D Printing Processes: Free Beginner's Guide – 3D Printing Industry. WEEE Symbol/marking (logo, labels, wheeled bin) ¿Qué es una Garantía Explícita de Comerciabilidad? | Libre Garantías Preguntas Frecuentes. PWR-ACDC-12V-16A-192W-CE-cert.pdf. FCC Approval – Process, Time, Costs and Labs. Manuales de Productos. Warning Hazard Signs from Safety Sign Supplies. Certification of electronic products. North American Standards: UL, FDA, ANSI, FCC, and CSA - KEYENCE Corporation. Standards and Certifications, FCC certification, DoC, Declaration of Conformity, UL Mark, Underwriters Laboratories, CE certification, CE Mark, Safety Regulations MPR II, TCO, CSA certification, Canadian Standards Association, ISO standards, ISO 9000, ISO.
FCC Part 15 | Compliance Today. Product Safety Engineering FAQ fcc part 15,part 68,class a,class b, vcci,nvlap,ce marking,emc directive,lvd. Compliance Information. What is the different between UL, ETL, CE, FCC and CSA. ---Webworm: CE, FCC Marks on electronic devices--- Product Reference. CE, RoHS and FCC Certification: Interview with Han Zuyderwijk. CE Testing and Certification Services from Agile Test Group. FCC Testing and Certification.
CE Testing. ¡Vaya! Google Chrome no ha podido encontrar la página h20195.www2.hp.com. Maquinaria de impresión HP. UNIDAD 2.pdf.