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Conway's Law. Conway's law is an adage named after computer programmer Melvin Conway, who introduced the idea in 1968; it was first dubbed Conway's law by participants at the 1968 National Symposium on Modular Programming.[1] It states that organizations which design systems ... are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations Although sometimes construed as humorous, Conway's law was intended as a valid sociological observation.

Conway's Law

It is based on the reasoning that in order for two separate software modules to interface correctly, the designers and implementers of each module must communicate with each other. Therefore, the interface structure of a software system will reflect the social structure of the organization(s) that produced it. Variations[edit] James O. Supporting evidence[edit] Apple Inc. (company): What is the internal culture like at Apple. Working At Apple. Former employees shed light on Apple's internal corporate culture. By Neil Hughes Wednesday, July 07, 2010, 11:50 am PT (02:50 pm ET) Former workers of Apple have offered a peek inside the company's secretive corporate culture, with a glimpse at employee mentality, security, and the difference between a project in which Steve Jobs is involved, and one without the chief executive's interest.

Former employees shed light on Apple's internal corporate culture

Purported details about Apple have been shared by some ex-employees who have left the company on Q&A website Quora. As first reported by Silicon Alley Insider, current Facebook employee Chad Little and employee Justin Maxwell offered a glimpse of their time spent at Apple. Little claimed that, like most companies, Apple has its fair share of red tape that can frustrate employees. But those issues go away and projects take on a "startup level urgency" when something is given the attention of company co-founder Jobs.

Apple's internal development practices. "Any software that does much of anything is going to have some kind of learning curve associated with it.

Apple's internal development practices

" Agreed. and I have made it through the learning curve. However, my wife now refuses to use the program because she doesn't understand it. Granted, she is basically saying that it isn't worth her time for the little bit that she intends to use it (plus she has me). "I don't know what version of iTunes you are using but 6.0.1 doesn't have a separate window for search results, everything displays in the main window. I didn't assume this because for Version 4 and 5 the search results had previously always displayed in the main window. Graphing Calculator Story. Apple’s Management Obsessed With Secrecy. Jonathan Ive on The Key to Apple's Success. Posted by: Helen Walters on July 08, 2009 Jonathan Ive isn’t prone to making wild proclamations about design, his boss, Steve Jobs, or Apple, the company at which he’s led the design team since 1996.

Jonathan Ive on The Key to Apple's Success

Indeed, he’s not really one for speaking in public much at all. So it was with a sense of keen anticipation that a group of 700 or so Londoners descended on the Royal Geographical Society in posh South Kensington to hear Ive in conversation with Sir Christopher Frayling, rector of the Royal College of Art.

During the hour-long chat, Ive touched on many themes and topics. The main takeaway for executives looking to try and copy Apple’s success? For Apple, he outlined, the end game isn't commercial success. Top Trends in Innovation Blog Apple Archives. Apple's design process. Interesting presentation at SXSW from Michael Lopp, senior engineering manager at Apple, who tried to assess how Apple “gets” design when so many other companies try and fail.

Apple's design process

After describing Apple’s process of delivering consumers with a succession of presents (“really good ideas wrapped up in other really good ideas” — in other words, great software in fabulous hardware in beautiful packaging), he asked the question many have asked in their time: “How the f*ck do you do that?” (South by Southwest is at ease with its panelists speaking earthily.) Then he went into a few details: Pixel Perfect Mockups This, Lopp admitted, causes a huge amount of work and takes an enormous amount of time. But, he added, “it removes all ambiguity.” Stifling security marks Apple corporate culture. Apple's security culture The level of secrecy in Apple's corporate culture is "super paranoid," say people with experience in the company.

Stifling security marks Apple corporate culture

The issue has come into particular focus with news of a liver transplant performed on CEO Steve Jobs, which despite its relevance to workers and investors has been kept outside of public knowledge for two months. A senior official, typically said to be more open to talking with the media, has refused to disclose anything to the New York Times. "Just can't do it. Too sensitive," he says. Applepeels.

I was hired to go to work at Apple in October of 1984, only a few months after the Macintosh was introduced.


My first official day was November 26, 1984. In one of the few moves in those days targeted at saving money, my partner and I did not get to start until after the sales conference that year. We were sure they just did not want to spend the money for another two tickets to Hawaii from Halifax, Nova Scotia. Applepeels: The Apple Corporate Culture. For many years, the most challenging management task at Apple was keeping your employees from working themselves to death. I can remember leaving the office at eight or nine o'clock at night and having to remind very dedicated system engineers that they had families and lives outside of Apple.

There have never been enough people at Apple to get the job done well as folks driven to be the best thought necessary. The sales force has always been ridiculously tiny, and I can never remember the System Engineer to Account Executive ratio getting much better than one to two. Yet somehow the job got done, but often at a huge human cost. Sixty to seventy hours a week was not abnormal for many Apple folks. As in all organizations the culture also changes individuals, especially in times of difficulty. Changes that came when Steve and his crew took over created a very different relationship between Apple, its employees and customers. Apple's supply chain judged best in world again. 7 June 2010 | Andy Allen A report by AMR Research has named Apple as the company with best supply chain practices in the world for the third year running.

Apple's supply chain judged best in world again

AMR praised Apple’s “embedded innovation, networked supply and demand shaping”. It also highlighted the company’s effective use of vertical integration as a strategy, in particular the purchase of chipmaker Intrinsity “acquired by Apple to ‘steal a march’ on competitors looking to enhance the performance of mobile devices”.

In a feature exploring the secret behind Apple's success, SM found the company’s ability to bring together two sides of the supply chain (digital and physical) efficiently and at increasingly low cost is a central plank to its rise to global dominance. Kevin O’Marah and Debra Hofman, the authors of the AMR report, noted that responsibility for the supply chain is moving to board level. The report also noted that there is growing evidence of a link between effective supply chain activities and good financial results. Right to the core.

Apple's internal organization [Archive] - AppleInsider. Okay, so the ideas originate high up... someone still needs to take that idea and actually turn it into a working device.

Apple's internal organization [Archive] - AppleInsider

If the device is something new, they can't just use off the shelf parts to put it together (can they?). I am having trouble imagining different groups of people working on independent projects that are ultimately supposed to fit together into a working device. Lets take the original iPod. Someone high up had to come up with the idea for a hard drive based music player... okay fine... now what's the next step?