Want to keep your new middle-schooler out of trouble? Then let them take risks. Educational Leadership:Early Intervention at Every Age:The Perils and Promise... Carol S.
Dweck I think educators commonly hold two beliefs that do just that. Many believe that (1) praising students' intelligence builds their confidence and motivation to learn, and (2) students' inherent intelligence is the major cause of their achievement in school. Our research has shown that the first belief is false and that the second can be harmful—even for the most competent students. As a psychologist, I have studied student motivation for more than 35 years. Fixed or Malleable? Praise is intricately connected to how students view their intelligence. Other students believe that their intellectual ability is something they can develop through effort and education. More and more research in psychology and neuroscience supports the growth mind-set. Alfred Binet (1909/1973), the inventor of the IQ test, had a strong growth mind-set. The Two Faces of Effort The fixed and growth mind-sets create two different psychological worlds.
The Effects of Praise Motivated to Learn. Giving Good Praise to Girls: What Messages Stick. How to praise kids: It’s a hot topic for many parents and educators.
A lot of the conversation around it has stemmed from studies by Carol Dweck, professor of psychology at Stanford who has been researching this specific topic for many years. “My research shows that praise for intelligence or ability backfires,” said Dweck, who co-authored a seminal research paper on the effects of praise on motivation and performance. “What we’ve shown is that when you praise someone, say, ‘You’re smart at this,’ the next time they struggle, they think they’re not. It’s really about praising the process they engage in, not how smart they are or how good they are at it, but taking on difficulty, trying many different strategies, sticking to it and achieving over time.”
But what some might not know is that this paradox is strongest for girls. “Of all the subjects on earth, people think math is the most fixed,” Dweck said. Want to Stop Mean Girls? Raise Nice Girls, Instead Once upon a time, fourth grade was the year that young girls began to have difficulty navigating friendships.
For many years, I worked in a school for kids with learning disabilities. It was always during fourth grade that previously established friendships began to hit turbulence. Names were called. Gossip was spread. Feelings were hurt. The teachers always had to deal with the worst of it, of course, because the tears, eye rolling, and barely audible sarcastic comments had a way of surfacing the very moment the teachers started teaching. Some days, the girls resolved their own issues and the previously ex-best friends were new best friends again by the time the school buses lined the driveway. The Hidden Brain: How Ocean Currents Explain Our Unconscious Social Biases. By Maria Popova “Those who travel with the current will always feel they are good swimmers; those who swim against the current may never realize they are better swimmers than they imagine.”
Biases often work in surreptitious ways — they sneak in through the backdoor of our conscience, our good-personhood, and our highest rational convictions, and lodge themselves between us and the world, between our imperfect humanity and our aspirational selves, between who we believe we are and how we behave. In the introduction, Vedantam contextualizes why this phenomenon isn’t new but bears greater urgency than ever: Unconscious biases have always dogged us, but multiple factors made them especially dangerous today. Globalization and technology, and the intersecting faultlines of religious extremism, economic upheaval, demographic change, and mass migration have amplified the effects of hidden biases. Illustration from the 1970 book 'I’m Glad I’m a Boy! Climate Change and Collective Intelligence. Classroom observations: what’s the best fix for a good but not perfect measure? Imagine having someone follow you around, observing you for just a fraction of a day, to assess your capability on the job.
Sounds nerve wracking. This is how many teachers are evaluated, and new research suggests that these observations are not altogether reliable. Although observations as a means of teacher assessment may be favoured over other methods such as gains in pupil standardised test score, we should be wary of relying too heavily on observations as they currently stand. A new paper out by the Brookings Institute reports that an assessment of teachers via observations is biased based on the existing ability level of the pupils in the class. That is, if the same teacher was dropped into in a better-performing class, he would be rated more favourably than if he had been dropped into a group of lower-performing pupils. Image credit: audio-luci-store.it; creative commons According to the paper by Russ Whitehurst, Matthew Chingos, and Katharine Lindquist: 33 Books on How to Live: My Reading List for the Long Now Foundation’s Manual for Civilization.
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