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How do i change uuid of swap partition type [SOLVED] (Page 1) / Kernel & Hardware. Uniq - Removing duplicate lines. The following command will sort all lines and remove duplicates (keeping unique lines): :sort u If you need more control, here are some alternatives.

Uniq - Removing duplicate lines

There are two versions (and \v "verymagic" version as a variant of the second): the first leaves only the last line, the second leaves only the first line. (Use \zs for speed reason.) g/^\(.*\)\n\1$/d g/\%(^\1\n\)\@<=\(.*\)$/d g/\v%(^\1\n)@<=(.*)$/d Breakdown of the second version: g/\%(^\1\n\)\@<=\(.*\)$/d g/ /d <-- Delete the lines matching the regexp \@<= <-- If the bit following matches, make sure the bit preceding this symbol directly precedes the match \(.*\)$ <-- Match the line into subst register 1 \%( \) <-- Group without placing in a subst register. ^\1\n <-- Match subst register 1 followed the new line between the 2 lines In this simple format (matching the whole line), it's not going to make much difference, but it will start to matter if you want to do stuff like match the first word only.

Rosetta Stone for Unix. Footnotes 1.

Rosetta Stone for Unix

In System V-based Unixes, run level relates to booting, shutdown, and single-user mode. In BSD, it has to do with security. 2. Freeware or separately downloadable; not part of the base OS. 3. 4. ioscan -funC disk may be helpful here to determine device path. 5. Universal Command Guide is a large book which covers several of the OSs in this table. has a similar table covering fewer Unix versions and a somewhat different set of tasks. Colin Barschel's Unix Toolbox is a wonderfully detailed handbook sorted by task area and giving both commands and config file excerpts for Linux and BSD. Memtester version 4. A userspace utility for testing the memory subsystem for faults.

memtester version 4

It's portable and should compile and work on any 32- or 64-bit Unix-like system. (Yes, even weird, proprietary Unices, and even Mac OS X.) For hardware developers, memtester can be told to test memory starting at a particular physical address as of memtester version 4.1.0. The GNU Privacy Handbook. Copyright © 1999 by The Free Software Foundation Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". Please direct questions, bug reports, or suggestions concerning this manual to the maintainer, Mike Ashley (<>). When referring to the manual please specify which version of the manual you have by using this version string: $Name: v1_1 $. Contributors to this manual include Matthew Copeland, Joergen Grahn, and David A. GnuPG is a tool for secure communication. Finding open files with lsof. Files are ubiquitous in the UNIX® environment, leading to a common phrase: "Everything is a file.

Finding open files with lsof

" Not only is regular data accessed through files, but also network connections and, often, hardware. In some cases, an entry appears when you request a directory listing through ls. In other cases, such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) sockets, there is no directory listing. But behind the scenes, a file descriptor has been assigned to the application, regardless of the nature of the file, providing a common interface for applications to interact with the underlying operating system. Because the list of open file descriptors of an application give a great deal of information about the application itself, being able to peer into this list is helpful. Introducing lsof Simply typing lsof produces a lot of detail, as shown in Listing 1. DOS to Linux Cheat Sheet. Native Win32 ports of some GNU utilities.

CS360 Lecture notes. Unix Toolbox. Hardware | Statistics | Users | Limits | Runlevels | root password | Compile kernel | Repair grub | Misc Running kernel and system information # uname -a # Get the kernel version (and BSD version) # lsb_release -a # Full release info of any LSB distribution # cat /etc/SuSE-release # Get SuSE version # cat /etc/debian_version # Get Debian version Use /etc/DISTR-release with DISTR= lsb (Ubuntu), redhat, gentoo, mandrake, sun (Solaris), and so on. System accounting in Linux. Monitoring user activity is a first line of defense in discovering unauthorized activity on your system.

System accounting in Linux

Jim McIntyre covers monitoring tools and system accounting procedures for your Linux system in this Daily Drill Down. The ability to monitor user activity on a Linux system is one of the first skills a Linux administrator should master. This ability often provides a first line of defense in discovering unauthorized activity. This Daily Drill Down discusses the monitoring tools that are available as part of the Linux operating system, and demonstrates how to employ system accounting procedures to enhance system security. Connection accountingConnection accounting is the process of tracking current user logins and logouts.