Get flash to fully experience Pearltrees
Figure 1a. The Mandelbrot set illustrates self-similarity. As you zoom in on the image at finer and finer scales, the same pattern re-appears so that it is virtually impossible to know at which level you are looking.
The upper levels on this chart can be considered to supervene on the lower levels.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason , or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology ).
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality , existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument . [ 3 ] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". [ 4 ] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία ( philosophia ), which literally means "love of wisdom". [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras . [ 8 ] A "philosopher" was understood as a word which contrasted with " sophist ".
Following the developments in Formal logic with symbolic logic in the late nineteenth century and mathematical logic in the twentieth, topics traditionally treated by logic not being part of formal logic have tended to be termed either philosophy of logic or philosophical logic if no longer simply logic .
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world , [ 1 ] although the term is not easily defined. [ 2 ] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: [ 3 ]
Meta-ontology deals with the nature of ontology and ontological questions.
Metacognition is defined as " cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing." [ 1 ] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. [ 1 ] There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. [ 2 ]
Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Ontology (from onto- , from the Greek ὤν , ὄντος "being; that which is", present participle of the verb εἰμί , eimi "be", and -λογία , -logia : "science, study, theory") is the philosophical study of the nature of being , becoming , existence , or reality , as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Overview Ontology, in analytic philosophy , concerns the determination whether some categories of being are fundamental and asks in what sense the items in those categories can be said to "be."
Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that our reality , or some aspect of it, is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes , linguistic practices , beliefs , etc. Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds , the past , the future , universals , mathematical entities (such as natural numbers ), moral categories , the material world , and thought . Realism can also be promoted in an unqualified sense, in which case it asserts the mind-independent existence of a visible world, as opposed to idealism , skepticism , and solipsism .
Megan Willams (journalist), ... Objectivity does not exist (especially for journalists)... interviewed in Varanasi in December 2010 by Vrinda Dar Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth , which has been variously defined by sources.
'Pataphysics ( French : 'pataphysique ) is a philosophy or media theory dedicated to studying what lies beyond the realm of metaphysics . The concept was popularised by French writer Alfred Jarry (1873–1907), who defined 'pataphysics as "the science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties of objects, described by their virtuality, to their lineaments". [ 1 ] A practitioner of 'pataphysics is a pataphysician or a pataphysicist.
For the current in the 19th century German idealism, see Naturphilosophie .