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There are dozens of species of psilocybin or 'magic mushrooms' belonging primarily to the genuses psilocybe, panaeolus, and copelandia (unrelated to psychoactive amanita species). The effects of their ingestion resemble a shorter acting LSD trip, producing significant physical, visual, and perceptual changes. Nearly all of the psilocybin containing mushrooms are small brown or tan mushrooms easily mistakable for any number of non-psychoactive, inedible, or poisonous mushrooms in the wild. This makes them somewhat difficult, and potentially hazardous, to identify. The primary distinguishable feature of most psilocybin containing mushrooms is that they bruise blue when handled.
Psilocybin [ nb 1 ] ( pron.: / ˌ s ɪ l ə ˈ s aɪ b ɪ n / SIL -ə- SY -bin ) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms , collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms . The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe , such as P. azurescens , P. semilanceata , and P. cyanescens , but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera . As a prodrug , psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin , which has mind-altering effects similar to those of LSD and mescaline . The effects generally include euphoria , visual and mental hallucinations , changes in perception , a distorted sense of time , and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks . Imagery found on prehistoric murals and rock paintings of modern-day Spain and Algeria suggest that human usage of psilocybin mushrooms dates back thousands of years.
Lysergic acid diethylamide , abbreviated LSD or LSD-25 , also known as lysergide ( INN ) and colloquially as acid , is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synesthesia , an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences , as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture . It is used mainly as an entheogen , recreational drug , and as an agent in psychedelic therapy . LSD is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has extremely low toxicity relative to dose . However, adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible. [ 3 ]
25I-NBOMe ( 2C-I-NBOMe ) is a derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic 2C-I , discovered in 2003 by Ralf Heim at the Free University of Berlin , [ 1 ] and subsequently investigated by a team at Purdue University led by David Nichols . [ 2 ] The carbon-11 labelled version of this compound ([ 11 C]Cimbi-5) was synthesized and validated as a radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) in Copenhagen. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Being the first 5-HT 2A receptor full agonist PET radioligand, [ 11 C]Cimbi-5 shows promise as a more functional marker of these receptors, which may be involved in mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Pharmacology
2C-I-NBOMEe; 25I-NBOMe; 25I; N-Bomb; Smiles; Psychedelic; Euphoriant; Phenethylamine; 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)phenethylamine 2C-I-NBOMe is chemically related to, but not the same as 2C-I. 2C-I-NBOMe is active at extremely low sub-milligram doses. This chemical has nearly no history of human use prior to 2010 when it first became available online.
25I-NBOMe is derived from the psychedelic phenethylamine 2C-I by substitution on the amine with a 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) group. [hide] - [top] Ways of Administration Common methods of administration include sublingual and intranasal . The doses are typically volumetrically dosed due to the extremely low dosage for activity (microgram ranges). The dosing method commonly used is liquid or blotter form.
N , N -Dimethyltryptamine ( DMT or N , N -DMT ) is a psychedelic compound of the tryptamine family. Its presence is widespread throughout the plant kingdom . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] DMT occurs in trace amounts in mammals, including humans, where it putatively functions as a trace amine neurotransmitter / neuromodulator . [ 5 ] It is originally derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan and ultimately produced by the enzyme INMT during normal metabolism . [ 6 ] The significance of its widespread natural presence remains undetermined. Structurally , DMT is analogous to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), the hormone melatonin , and other psychedelic tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DMT , bufotenin , psilocin and psilocybin .
Dextromethorphan ( DXM or DM ) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug . It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, such as Mucinex DM, Robitussin , NyQuil , Dimetapp , Vicks , Coricidin , Delsym , TheraFlu , and others, including generic labels. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, spray, and lozenge forms. In its pure form, dextromethorphan occurs as a white powder. [ 2 ] DXM is also used recreationally.
Robo; DM Dissociative; Psychedelic; Cough Suppressant dextromethorphan hydrobromide DXM is a widely available over-the-counter cough suppressant. When taken far above its standard medical dosage, it is a strong dissociative used primarily by teens.
Tetrahydrocannabinol ( pron.: / ˌ t ɛ t r ə ˌ h aɪ d r ɵ k ə ˈ n æ b ɨ n ɔː l / tet-rə- HY -drə-kə- NAB -i-nawl or pron.: / ˌ t ɛ t r ə ˌ h aɪ d r ɵ k ə ˈ n æ b ɨ n ɒ l / tet-rə- HY -drə-kə- NAB -i-nol ; [ 5 ] THC ), also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9 -THC ), is the principal psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid ) of the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, by Israeli scientists Raphael Mechoulam , Yechiel Gaoni and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. A pharmaceutical formulation of THC, known by its INN dronabinol , is available by prescription in the U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol . An aromatic terpenoid , THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents , specifically lipids and alcohols . [ 3 ]
The endocannabinoid system refers to a group of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors that are involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite , pain-sensation , mood , and memory ; it mediates the psychoactive effects of cannabis and, broadly speaking, includes: The endogenous arachidonate -based lipids, anandamide ( N -arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); these are known as " endocannabinoids " and are physiological ligands for the cannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoids are all eicosanoids . [ 1 ] The enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endocannabinoids, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase or monoacylglycerol lipase . The cannabinoid receptors CB 1 and CB 2 , two G protein-coupled receptors that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The endocannabinoid system has been studied using genetic and pharmacological methods.
Serotonin ( pron.: / ˌ s ɛr ə ˈ t oʊ n ɨ n / ) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter . Biochemically derived from tryptophan , serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets , and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness . [ 5 ] Approximately 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the alimentary canal ( gut ), where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood , appetite, and sleep.
Ketamine , one of the most common NMDA receptor antagonists. NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize , or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor ( NMDAR ). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia . There is evidence that NMDA receptor antagonists can cause a certain type of neurotoxicity or brain damage referred to as Olney's Lesions in rodents , although such damage has never been conclusively observed in primates like humans , however, in adolescent cynomolgus monkeys that were injected daily with the non-competitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine , there were some definite neurologic deficits observed. [ 1 ] Several synthetic opioids function additionally as NMDAR-antagonists, such as Meperidine , Methadone , Dextropropoxyphene , Tramadol and Ketobemidone .