Get flash to fully experience Pearltrees
Social influence occurs when one's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. [ 1 ] Social influence takes many forms and can be seen in conformity , socialization , peer pressure , obedience , leadership , persuasion , sales , and marketing . In 1958, Harvard psychologist, Herbert Kelman identified three broad varieties of social influence. [ 2 ] Compliance is when people appear to agree with others, but actually keep their dissenting opinions private.
In sociology and social psychology , impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction ( Piwinger & Ebert 2001 , pp. 1–2). It is usually used synonymously with self -presentation, in which a person tries to influence the perception of their image. The notion of impression management also refers to practices in professional communication and public relations , where the term is used to describe the process of formation of a company's or organization's public image.
Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. [ 1 ] Norms are implicit, unsaid rules shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others and among society or social group. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone.
Italian/French Propaganda Postcard from World War I era showing a caricature of Kaiser Wilhelm II biting into the world
Persuasion , novel by Jane Austen .
Gaming the system (also referred to as gaming the rules , abusing the system , milking the system , playing the system , or working the system ) can be defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system in order, instead, to manipulate the system for a desired outcome. [ 1 ] According to James Rieley, structures in organizations (both explicit and implicit policies and procedures, stated goals, and mental models) drive behaviors that are detrimental to long-term organizational success. [ 2 ] For some, "error...is the essence of 'gaming the system,' in which a gap in protocol allows for errant practices that lead to unintended results." [ 3 ] [ edit ] Examples [ edit ] Finance
Creative accounting and earnings management are euphemisms referring to accounting practices that may follow the letter of the rules of standard accounting practices , but certainly deviate from the spirit of those rules. They are characterized by excessive complication and the use of novel ways of characterizing income, assets, or liabilities and the intent to influence readers towards the interpretations desired by the authors. The terms "innovative" or "aggressive" are also sometimes used. The term as generally understood refers to systematic misrepresentation of the true income and assets of corporations or other organizations. " Creative accounting" is at the root of a number of accounting scandals , and many proposals for accounting reform – usually centering on an updated analysis of capital and factors of production that would correctly reflect how value is added.
The Alcatraz coup is an illegal method of learning about the opponents' cards in contract bridge . It is not a true coup ; the word is being used facetiously in conjunction with the name of the former Alcatraz penitentiary. The "coup" consists of a deliberate revoke by declarer, causing the next player to reveal whether he holds the key card whose location is sought. The declarer then corrects the revoke (which is allowed without penalty if done soon enough) and the defender may change his play, but declarer now knows about the key card and can choose how to finesse accordingly.
Deception , beguilement , deceit , bluff , mystification and subterfuge are acts to propagate beliefs that are not true , or not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission). Deception can involve dissimulation , propaganda , and sleight of hand , as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment. There is also self-deception , as in bad faith . Deception is a major relational transgression that often leads to feelings of betrayal and distrust between relational partners. Deception violates relational rules and is considered to be a negative violation of expectations. Most people expect friends, relational partners, and even strangers to be truthful most of the time.
"Loopholes" in an old city gate tower A loophole is an ambiguity in a system, such as a law or security , which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the intent, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Loopholes are searched for and used strategically in a variety of circumstances, including taxes , elections , politics , the criminal justice system, or in breaches of security. Historically, arrow slits were narrow vertical windows from which castle defenders launched arrows from a sheltered position, and were also referred to as "loopholes". [ 1 ] Thus a loophole in a law often contravenes the intent of the law without technically breaking it, much as the small slit window in a castle wall provides the only ready means of gaining entry without breaching or destroying the wall or a gate.
Cheating refers to an immoral way of achieving a goal. It is generally used for the breaking of rules to gain advantage in a competitive situation. Cheating is the getting of reward for ability by dishonest means. This broad definition will necessarily include acts of bribery, cronyism, sleaze, nepotism and any situation where individuals are given preference using inappropriate criteria. [ Medical Education 1 ] The rules infringed may be explicit, or they may be from an unwritten code of conduct based on morality , ethics or custom , making the identification of cheating a subjective process. Cheating can refer specifically to marital infidelity .
The letter of the law versus the spirit of the law is an idiomatic antithesis . When one obeys the letter of the law but not the spirit, one is obeying the literal interpretation of the words (the "letter") of the law , but not the intent of those who wrote the law. Conversely, when one obeys the spirit of the law but not the letter, one is doing what the authors of the law intended, though not necessarily adhering to the literal wording. "Law" originally referred to legislative statute , but in the idiom may refer to any kind of rule. Intentionally following the letter of the law but not the spirit may be accomplished through exploiting technicalities, loopholes, and ambiguous language.
A filibuster is a type of parliamentary procedure where debate is extended, allowing one or more members to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a given proposal. It is sometimes referred to as talking out a bill , [ 1 ] and characterized as a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision-making body. The English term "filibuster" derives from the Spanish filibustero , itself deriving originally from the Dutch vrijbuiter , " privateer , pirate , robber" (also the root of English " freebooter " [ 2 ] ). The Spanish form entered the English language in the 1850s, as applied to military adventurers from the United States then operating in Central America and the Spanish West Indies such as William Walker . [ 3 ] [ 4 ]
Abuse of process is a cause of action in tort arising from one party making a malicious and deliberate misuse or perversion of regularly issued court process (civil or criminal) not justified by the underlying legal action. It is a common law intentional tort. It is to be distinguished from malicious prosecution , another type of tort that involves misuse of the public right of access to the courts .
Crowd manipulation is the intentional use of techniques based on the principles of crowd psychology to engage, control, or influence the desires of a crowd in order to direct its behavior toward a specific action. [ 1 ] This practice is common to politics and business and can facilitate the approval or disapproval or indifference to a person, policy, or product. The ethical use of crowd manipulation is debatable and depends on such factors as the intention of and the means used by the manipulator, as well as the ends achieved. Crowd manipulation differs from propaganda although they may reinforce one another to produce a desired result. If propaganda is "the consistent, enduring effort to create or shape events to influence the relations of the public to an enterprise, idea or group", [ 2 ] crowd manipulation is the relatively brief call to action once the seeds of propaganda (i.e. more specifically "pre-propaganda" [ 3 ] ) are sown and the public is organized into a crowd.