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Extra layer of tectonic plates discovered within Earth's mantle, scientists say. Scientists say they have found a possible layer of tectonic plates within the Earth’s mantle which could explain a mysterious series of earthquakes in the Pacific.

Extra layer of tectonic plates discovered within Earth's mantle, scientists say

For more than half a century scientists have known that continents drift over the surface of our planet, and that the ocean floor tears apart in their wake, with magma from the mantle filling the gap. Cyclone Debbie: 'Monster' storm batters Australia. A powerful cyclone carrying winds of up to 263km/h (163 mph) has made landfall in Queensland, Australia.

Cyclone Debbie: 'Monster' storm batters Australia

Cyclone Debbie, a category four storm, has left at least 45,000 homes without power and damaged buildings, although it is too early to say how many. PM Malcolm Turnbull told parliament he had activated a disaster response plan. More than 25,000 people were urged to evacuate their homes ahead of predictions the cyclone would be Queensland's most damaging since 2011. The system is expected to remain for several hours after crossing the coast between Bowen and Airlie Beach. Typhoon Haiyan - Mindmap in GCSE Geography. Soil liquefaction. Geography & Geology For Kids - By KidsGeo.com. Plate tectonics theory, convection currents and sea-floor spreading.

Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist born in 1880, developed the idea of continental drift.

Plate tectonics theory, convection currents and sea-floor spreading

He suggested that continents moved around the earth like giant rafts. Fellow scientists at the time thought the theory was ludicrous. How Icelandic volcano issued warnings months before its eruption. It left the skies over Britain clear of aircraft trails for the first time in decades and led to travel misery.

How Icelandic volcano issued warnings months before its eruption

For several days in April, flights in northern Europe were grounded as a cloud of ash and dust spewed out of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland and were blown around the continent. Now, the geological events leading up to the eruption have been documented, and they show that the volcano had been rumbling for many months before it blew its top. RE - Earthquake case studies - Ace Geography. Sign In - ClickView. Sign In - ClickView. GF687. GFAQA654. Sign In - ClickView. Difference Between Earthquake Focus and the Epicenter? There is a lot of terminology that can confuse geographic enthusiast.

Difference Between Earthquake Focus and the Epicenter?

Focus, Hypocenter, Epicenter? What does that exactly mean? When we spoke about seismic waves we mentioned that they originate from different areas. Latest Earthquakes. What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy after the shifting of tectonic plates Usually associated with faulting. - ppt download. Earthquake Case Study (Haiti – Poor)

Location Haiti is a small island located in the Caribbean, South East of the USA and East of Cuba.

Earthquake Case Study (Haiti – Poor)

Its capital city is Port-au-Prince. Image courtesy of Wikipedia Causes. GCSE Haiti development. Responses Many countries responded to appeals for aid, pledging funds and dispatching rescue and medical teams, engineers and support personnel.

GCSE Haiti development

Communication systems, air, land, and sea transport facilities, hospitals, and electrical networks had been damaged by the earthquake, which slowed rescue and aid efforts. GF672. Earthquakes. Reykjavík: the geothermal city that aims to go carbon neutral. Reykjavík used to be marketed as a place of “pure energy”, run on geothermal power – and now Iceland’s capital is trying to become the world’s first carbon neutral city.

Reykjavík: the geothermal city that aims to go carbon neutral

Last month, Iceland became one of the first countries to ratify the Paris climate deal with a unilateral parliamentary vote, shortly after Reykjavik announced its aim to be carbon neutral by 2040. It wants to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions from 2.8 tonnes per person in 2013 to zero – largely by changing the shape of the city to reverse urban sprawl and encouraging Icelanders out of their beloved cars to walk, cycle or use public transport. The city already has a head-start thanks to its reliance on geothermal energy. The US, for example, has a greenhouse gas footprint of 16.5 tonnes per person. Haiti faces famine and disease in aftermath of hurricane. Xinhua News Agency/REX/Shutterstock By Debora MacKenzie Haiti is bracing itself for a surge in starvation and disease after hurricane Matthew hit the west of the country on 4 October.

Haiti faces famine and disease in aftermath of hurricane

Nearly 1000 people have been killed by the storm itself, but the death toll could rise sharply as the knock-on effects of the devastation take hold. In the country’s hard-hit southern peninsula, crops were destroyed, livestock swept away, and irrigation and fishing infrastructure damaged. That is serious in the Western Hemisphere’s most impoverished nation, where most people are subsistence farmers. The World Food Programme is rushing in emergency food aid, in some cases via slow boats and expensive helicopters as roads and bridges have been washed away. Volcano Hazards Program. View near-real-time volcano monitoring data using the 'Find a U.S.

Volcano Hazards Program

Volcano' menu above. Volcanic monitoring types and methods employed by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. Types of volcanic eruptions - Wikipedia. Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions.

Iceland's biggest volcano Katla set to erupt after largest tremors in 40 years. Iceland raised the alarm after its largest volcano was hit by the biggest tremors since 1977. Two quakes larger than four in magnitude early Monday rocked the crater of Katla, the country’s Met Office said in a statement. That was followed by at least 10 more tremors at the volcano, which rises 1,450 metres (4,757 feet) into the air on the North Atlantic island’s southern coast. Fears of new Iceland volcano eruption as mountain named after ugly troll Katla could soon erupt.

Airports across Britain face chaos, the economy could be hit and millions of people may suffer heath problems - if experts' fears come true about volcano in Iceland named after an ugly troll. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement. Plate Tectonics. Plate tectonics and associated hazards Plate movement The Structure of the Earth - Plate tectonics Evidence for plate tectonics theory.

Volcanic bombshell. So how do you explain the progression in age seen in chains of volcanoes such as those at Hawaii, the trait that led to the birth of mantle plume theory in the first place? The answer might be found in Yellowstone, once an archetype of a plume-fed hot spot. Although there is a chain of progressively older volcanoes marching from Yellowstone towards Idaho, a variety of seismic studies from a number of plume-hunters have shown no signs of hot magma below a depth of 200 kilometres and no disturbance in the mantle below that.

"Yellowstone was supposed to be the grandaddy of all continental plumes. It's a huge volcanic centre but its status as a plume has evaporated," says Dean Presnall, a petrologist with the University of Texas at Dallas. Anderson's idea seems to fit instead, says Foulger, now working with the Volcano Hazards Team at the US Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. Environment Agency. Hurricanes in History. Please note that the following list is not exhaustive and does not include every notable storm in history. Hurricane Matthew: Hundreds dead in Haiti storm disaster. Super Eruption is Global Disaster. Hurricane Matthew: Strongest storm since 2004 nears Florida.

Image copyright Getty Images. Plate Tectonics and Hazards - The British Geographer. GF554. Tsunami simulator recreates devastating waves for first time in a lab. Plate tectonics. Developing the theory. Continental drift was hotly debated off and on for decades following Wegener's death before it was largely dismissed as being eccentric, preposterous, and improbable. Anatomy of an earthquake - Professor Iain Stewart. Powerpoint plate tectonics theory. Seismic Monitor - Recent earthquakes on a world map and much more. Hurricane Matthew threatens Haiti, Jamaica and Cuba. Earth's tectonic plates have doubled their speed. Earth Layers. Hurricane Matthew is strongest storm in Atlantic in nine years. Image copyright Reuters. GF526.