Siberian Traps. The extent of the Siberian Traps. (Map in German) The Siberian Traps (Russian: Сибирские траппы, Sibirskije trappy) form a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia. The massive eruptive event which formed the traps, one of the largest known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history, continued for a million years and spanned the Permian–Triassic boundary, about 251 to 250 million years ago. The term "traps" is derived from the Swedish word for stairs (trappa, or sometimes trapp), referring to the step-like hills forming the landscape of the region, which is typical of flood basalts.
Geographical extent Vast volumes of basaltic lava paved over a large expanse of primeval Siberia in a flood basalt event. The area covered lies between 50° and 75° north latitude and 60° to 120° east longitude. Formation Impact on prehistoric life Nickel deposits In popular culture See also Russian famine of 1601–03. The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of Russian people, during the Time of Troubles, when the country was unsettled politically and later invaded by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The many deaths contributed to social disruption and helped bring about the downfall of Boris Godunov, elected as tsar during the interregnum.
The famine was part of worldwide record cold winters and crop disruption, which in 2008 geologists linked to the volcanic eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru. Great Famine of 1601, a 19th-century engraving Causes In 2008, geologists from the University of California, Davis announced the results of a study documenting worldwide famine after the eruption of a volcano in Peru in 1600. Number of dead During this two and half year period, 127,000 bodies were buried in mass graves in Moscow alone. See also References Mount Samalas: Indonesia 1257. Segara Anak is a crater lake contained within Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok in Indonesia. The name Segara Anak means child of the sea given to the blue colour of the lake reminiscent of the sea. The lake is heated, so its temperature is 20-22°C, about 5-7°C above the expected temperature for a lake in that altitude.
At the west end of the lake is the volcanic cone Gunung Baru, giving to the lake a crescent shape. Gas bubbles escape from the lake floor. The lake pH is 7-8. Mount Samalas Lake Segara Anak is the remnant of a volcanic mountain named Mount Samalas, with an estimated height of 4200 metres. References Huaynaputina: Peru 1600. Ash falling on the city of Arequipa in 1600 Huaynaputina (Spanish pronunciation: [wainapuˈtina], Pronounced: /waɪnəpʊˈtiːnə/ W'EYE-nuh-PUU-tee-NUH; from Quechua: Waynaputina, meaning "Young Volcano") is a stratovolcano in a volcanic upland in southern Peru. The volcano does not have an identifiable mountain profile, but instead is a large volcanic crater. It has produced high-potassium andesite and dacite. On 19 February 1600, it exploded catastrophically (Volcanic Explosivity Index—or VEI—6), in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times.
The eruption continued with a series of events into March. An account of the event was included in Fray Antonio Vázquez de Espinosa's Compendio y Descripción de las Indias, which was translated into English as Compendium and description of the West Indies in 1942. Geography and structure History Before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, not much is known of the region's history. Geology Russia The 13th Century volcanic explosion that may have triggered a 'Little Ice Age' and created a Far Eastern Pompeii just waiting to be discovered.
Eruption thought to be from Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok IslandBlast was so large that it left its mark in ice of the Arctic and the AntarcticHistorical evidence shows how it disturbed the climate for at least two yearsMystery city, preserved in same way as Pompeii, may be buried on the island By Ellie Zolfagharifard Published: 12:42 GMT, 1 October 2013 | Updated: 16:32 GMT, 1 October 2013 An Indonesian volcano is thought be the source of a massive ‘mystery eruption’- the largest that has occurred in the last 3,700 years.
The enormous blast, which took place nearly 800 years ago, may have created a ‘Pompeii of the Far East’, according to researchers. They believe this mystery city may lie buried waiting to be discovered on an Indonesian island. The source of the eruption has been narrowed down to the Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok Island. Researchers claim the volcano could also be one that started a 600-year cold period named ‘the Little Ice Age’. Huaynaputina: Peru 1600. Siberian Traps. Russian famine of 1601–03. Laki: Iceland 1783. Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the small village Kirkjubæjarklaustur. Lakagígar is the correct name, as Laki mountain itself did not erupt, but fissures opened up on each side of it.
Lakagígar is part of a volcanic system centered on the Grímsvötn volcano and including the Þórðarhyrna volcano. It lies between the glaciers of Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull, in an area of fissures that run in a southwest to northeast direction. The system erupted over an eight-month period between 1783 and 1784 from the Laki fissure and the adjoining Grímsvötn volcano, pouring out an estimated 14 km3 (3.4 cu mi) of basalt lava and clouds of poisonous hydrofluoric acid and sulfur dioxide compounds that killed over 50% of Iceland's livestock population, leading to a famine that killed approximately 25% of the island's human population. 1783 eruption Consequences in Iceland Center of the Laki Fissure. The 13th Century volcanic explosion that may have triggered a 'Little Ice Age' and created a Far Eastern Pompeii just waiting to be discovered.
Mist Hardships Disaster. Móðuharðindin (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈmoːuðʏˌharðɪntɪn], Mist Hardships) was a natural disaster which took place in Iceland in the years 1783–1785, following the volcanic eruption of Mount Laki. The Hardship The hardship began with the eruption of the volcano in Lakagígar on June 8, 1783, which was one of the greatest volcanic eruptions in historical times. The eruption devastated Iceland and the environmental effects could be felt in many places throughout the world, due to the severe global meteorological effects of the rising sulphuric fumes. Jón Steingrímsson, a local Lutheran pastor, grew famous because of his eldmessa ("Sermon of Fire"), which he delivered as his congregation took refuge in the town church. His sermon was credited with stopping the advance of the lava flow. It was later printed as Eldrit in 1788. After the volcano erupted, it emitted a lava flow which lasted for about five months.
References Further reading External links See also Phlegraean Fields. Sulfur at the Solfatara crater Geological phases Three geological phases or periods are recognised and distinguished. The First Phlegraean Period. It is thought that the eruption of the Archiflegreo volcano occurred about 39.28 ± 0.11 ka. The dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption to ~37,000 calendar years B.P. draws attention to the coincidence of this volcanic catastrophe and the suite of coeval, Late Pleistocene biocultural changes that occurred within and outside the Mediterranean region. These included the Middle to Upper Paleolithic cultural transition and the replacement of Neanderthal populations by anatomically modern Homo sapiens, a subject of sustained debate.
No less than 150 km3 of magma were extruded in the CI eruption, the signal of which can be detected in Greenland ice cores. Volcanic deposit indicating possible eruption dated Ar at 315, 205, 157 and 18.0 kya The caldera, which now is essentially at ground level, is accessible on foot. Mount Samalas: Indonesia 1257.