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Quinoa ( pron.: / ˈ k iː n w ɑː / or / k ɨ ˈ n oʊ . ə / , Spanish : quinua , from Quechua : kinwa ), a species of goosefoot ( Chenopodium ), is a grain-like crop grown primarily for its edible seeds . It is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal , or grain, as it is not a member of the true grass family . As a chenopod , quinoa is closely related to species such as beets , spinach and tumbleweeds . [ edit ] Overview
Field of buckwheat in Bumthang (Bhutan), by Mario Biondi , September 2010 Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds, and also used as a cover crop . Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass ; instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel , knotweed , and rhubarb . The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined sharply in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples.
Oats redirects here. It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here, or any cultivated or wild species of the genus Avena . The common oat ( Avena sativa ) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other grains). While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats , one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats typically make up a part of the daily diet of domestic horses, about 20% of daily intake or smaller, and are regularly fed to cattle, as well. Oats are also used in some brands of dog food and chicken feed.
Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family , is a major cereal grain . Important uses include use as animal fodder , as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages , and as a component of various health foods . It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures.
The three main forms of consumed rice: brown, red, and Thai white rice. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain , it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies . It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn), according to data for 2010. [ 1 ] Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. [ 2 ]
Maize ( pron.: / ˈ m eɪ z / MAYZ ; Zea mays subsp. mays L , from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz ), known in some English-speaking countries as corn (meaning grain), is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times . The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels . Maize kernels are used in cooking as a starch .
A closeup of kodo millet with husk, also known as varagu millet in the Deccan Plateau of India Millet grains The millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses , widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for both human food and fodder . They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Millets are important crops in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India , Nigeria , and Niger ), with 97% of millet production in developing countries . [ 1 ] The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high temperature conditions.
Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain type. This grain is twice the sized of modern-day wheat and is known for its rich nutty flavor. KAMUT is the product name for the wheat variety QK-77 of this species. [ 2 ] "Khorasan" refers to an historical region in the northeast of Iran , which was once much larger than modern-day Khorasan Province . [ edit ] Taxonomy Original botanical identifications were uncertain.
Rye ( Secale cereale ) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe ( Triticeae ) and is closely related to barley ( Hordeum ) and wheat ( Triticum ). Rye grain is used for flour , rye bread , rye beer , some whiskeys , some vodkas , and animal fodder .
Wheat ( Triticum spp.) [ 1 ] is a cereal grain , originally from the Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands , but now cultivated worldwide. In 2010, world production of wheat was 651 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (844 million tons) and rice (672 million tons). [ 2 ] Wheat was the second most-produced cereal in 2009; world production in that year was 682 million tons, after maize (817 million tons), and with rice as a close third (679 million tons). [ 3 ]
Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum; [ a ] Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum [ 1 ] ) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today. [ citation needed ] It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat (like emmer, durum wheat is awned ) strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form. [ 2 ] Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses, the most well-known being pasta which in Italy is exclusively made from durum wheat. [ 3 ] Durum wheat is used extensively in breadmaking. However, it is unusual in that, despite very high protein content, it is low in desirable gluten needed to form a glutinous web necessary for bread to rise.
Wild einkorn, Karadag, central Turkey Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn , literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat , Triticum boeoticum , or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum . The wild and domesticated forms are either considered separate species, as here, or as subspecies of T. monococcum .
Emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccum ), also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat , [ 1 ] is a type of awned wheat . It was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East . It was widely cultivated in the ancient world, but is now a relict crop in mountainous regions of Europe and Asia.
Spelt , also known as dinkel wheat , [ 2 ] or hulled wheat , [ 2 ] is a hexaploid species of wheat . Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times ; it now survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain and has found a new market as a health food. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat ( T. aestivum ), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta . [ edit ] Evolution Spelt has a complex history. It is a wheat species known from genetic evidence to have originated as a hybrid of a domesticated tetraploid wheat such as emmer wheat and the wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii .