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Describing consonants. What makes one consonant different from another? Producing a consonant involves making the vocal tract narrower at some location than it usually is. We call this narrowing a constriction. Which consonant you're pronouncing depends on where in the vocal tract the constriction is and how narrow it is. It also depends on a few other things, such as whether the vocal folds are vibrating and whether air is flowing through the nose. We classify consonants along three major dimensions: place of articulation manner of articulation voicing The place of articulation dimension specifies where in the vocal tract the constriction is. For example, for the sound [d]: Place of articulation = alveolar.

Voicing The vocal folds may be held against each other at just the right tension so that the air flowing past them from the lungs will cause them to vibrate against each other. The other sounds of English do not come in voiced/voiceless pairs. Manners of articulation Stops Fricatives Approximants Affricates Velar. African-American Vernacular English. Variety of American English Having its own unique grammatical, vocabulary and accent features, African-American Vernacular English is employed by Black Americans as the more informal and casual end of a sociolinguistic continuum; on the formal end of this continuum, speakers switch to more standard English grammar and vocabulary, usually while retaining elements of the nonstandard accent. As with most African-American English, African-American Vernacular English shares a large portion of its grammar and phonology with the rural dialects of the Southern United States, and especially older Southern American English, due to historical connections of African Americans to the region.

Origins[edit] African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) may be considered a dialect, ethnolect or sociolect. [citation needed] While it is clear that there is a strong historical relationship between AAVE and earlier Southern U.S. dialects, the origins of AAVE are still a matter of debate. Phonology[edit] Notes[edit] SALSA Project Home. The aim of SALSA II is to provide a large, frame-based lexicon for German, with rich semantic and syntactic properties, as a resource for linguistic and computational linguistic research, investigate probabilistic and hybrid methods for wide-coverage semantic annotation, and explore the use of frame semantic annotations for dynamic semantic analysis in practical NLP applications, especially information access.

For more information, see our overview page. SALSA II is funded by the German Science Foundation DFG and builds on its predecessor project SALSA, in particular the German SALSA/TIGER corpus with manually annotated FrameNet frame structures. Open Positions No open positions at the moment. News MaJo - a toolkit for supervised Word Sense Disambiguation and Active Learning is now available.

Proteus Project: NOMLEX. Proteus Project Department of Computer Science New York University Catherine Macleod, Ralph Grishman, Adam Meyers, Leslie Barrett and Ruth Reeves Overview NOMLEX (NOMinalization Lexicon) is a dictionary of English nominalizations developed by the Proteus Project at New York University under the direction of Catherine Macleod. NOMLEX seeks not only to describe the allowed complements for a nominalization, but also to relate the nominal complements to the arguments of the corresponding verb.

A sample entry follows: (nom :orth "promotion" :verb "promote" :nom-type((verb-nom)) :verb-subj ((n-n-mod) (det-poss)) :verb-subc ((nom-np :object ((det-poss)(n-n-mod)(pp-of))) (nom-np-as-np :object ((det-poss) (pp-of))) (nom-possing :nom-subc ((p-possing :pval ("of")))) (nom-np-pp :object ((det-poss) (n-n-mod) (pp-of)) :pval ("into" "from" "for" "to")) (nom-np-pp-pp :object ((det-poss) (n-n-mod) (pp-of)) :pval ("for" "into" "to") :pval2 ("from")))) Downloading NOMLEX NOMLEX update in NOMBANK References.

NomBank. We began this project firmly on the shoulders of Catherine Macleod's Nomlex project and related work on support verbs. This turned out to be a big boost as about one half of the argument-taking nouns in the corpus are nominalizations or nouns that have nominalization-like properties (e.g., "aggression" and "agenda" have argument structures similar to the verbs "destroy" and "schedule"). NomBank has forced us to define noun argument structure in great detail, including areas that have little if any previous research. So in many ways, we are carving out new ground. Some sample phenomena that we cover include: support verb constructions ("John MADE A DECISION"); arguments across copulas ("His decision WAS TO LEAVE"); and parenthetical PP constructions ("Trading in Cineplex Odeon Corp. shares was halted on the New York and Toronto stock exchanges late yesterday afternoon AT THE COMPANY'S REQUEST").

People: NomBank.1.0 Release (tgz, zip): Links. Martha Palmer | Projects | ACE. The original PropBank The original PropBank project, funded by ACE, created a corpus of text annotated with information about basic semantic propositions. Predicate-argument relations were added to the syntactic trees of the Penn Treebank. This resource is now available via LDC. PropBank today This project was continued under NSF funding and DARPA GALE and BOLT. with the aim of creating Parallel PropBanks (the English-Chinese Treebank/PropBank) and also PropBanking other genres, such as Broadcast News, Broadcast Conversation, WebText and Discussion Fora, at the University of Colorado. PropBank is also being mapped to VerbNet and FrameNet as part of SemLink: Mapping together PropBank/VerbNet/FrameNet.

PropBank's coverage is also being extended to provide support for AMR annotation, which makes heavy use of PropBank frame files. This is being funded by DARPA DEFT. Resources - The Resources below are being transitioned to a New PropBank Github Resource Page. Deep-sequoia. Historical linguistics. Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change. It has five main concerns: to describe and account for observed changes in particular languagesto reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics)to develop general theories about how and why language changesto describe the history of speech communitiesto study the history of words, i.e. etymology. History and development[edit] Modern historical linguistics dates from the late 18th century.

It grew out of the earlier discipline of philology, the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity. At first, historical linguistics was comparative linguistics. Scholars were concerned chiefly with establishing language families and reconstructing prehistoric proto-languages, using the comparative method and internal reconstruction. Evolution into other fields[edit] Sub-fields of study[edit] Etymology[edit] Glossary of linguistic terms. Learn the phonetic alphabet. By stretch | Thursday, December 31, 2009 at 3:18 a.m. UTC How often have you been on one end of a telephone conversation that went like this? A: "Okay, give me the MAC address.

" B: "Zero zero, zero two, six bee--" A: "Six what? " B: "Bee. " A: "Bee? " B: "No, bee! " ...and so on. The phonetic alphabet is a mapping of individual letters and numbers to specially chosen words which are unlikely to be mistaken for one another (for instance, none of the words in the phonetic alphabet rhyme). About the Author Jeremy Stretch is a network engineer living in the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina area. Comments Dedan (guest) December 31, 2009 at 3:28 a.m. I find this usually identifies the person I am talking to as a veteran. CiscomonkeyDecember 31, 2009 at 3:45 a.m. I do this by habit (former military here). Haakon (guest) December 31, 2009 at 3:58 a.m. Using the NATO phonetic alphabet saved me so much frustration when doing first level helpdesk. GabrooksDecember 31, 2009 at 3:58 a.m. I'll bite. Aaron: Etymologic: the toughest etymology (word origin) game on the Web.

How Language Works (Edition 3.0): Table of Contents. Stanley Fish. This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful.Find sources: "Stanley Fish" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.

He is currently the Floersheimer Distinguished Visiting Professor of Law at Yeshiva University's Benjamin N. Fish is associated with postmodernism, at times to his irritation. Instead he views himself as an advocate of anti-foundationalism.[2] He is also viewed as being an influence in the rise and development of reader-response theory. Early life Academic career Milton Fish started his career as a medievalist. Interpretive communities Criticisms of his work. Treebank. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Etymology The term treebank was coined by linguist Geoffrey Leech in the 1980s, by analogy to other repositories such as a seedbank or bloodbank.[2] This is because both syntactic and semantic structure are commonly represented compositionally as a tree structure.

Construction Treebanks are often created on top of a corpus that has already been annotated with part-of-speech tags. Example phrase structure tree for John loves Mary Some treebanks follow a specific linguistic theory in their syntactic annotation (e.g. the BulTreeBank follows HPSG) but most try to be less theory-specific. (S (NP (NNP John)) (VP (VPZ loves) (NP (NNP Mary))) (. .)) Applications Semantic treebanks Search tools. Theoretical linguistics. Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language itself and seeks to answer fundamental questions as to what language is and why languages have the properties they have. Linguistic metalanguage, theories, methodology, and the construction of analytical models of language are part of theoretical linguistics.[1] Theoretical linguistics is situated between descriptive linguistics and language philosophy.

While the basic linguistic terminology is shared by most or all, different approaches to linguistic research have developed their own terminology. Various frameworks of linguistic inquiry may also understand same terms in different ways, depending on which theory of language they support.