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Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E ) is one of the 20-22 proteinogenic amino acids , and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non- essential amino acid .
Dopamine (abbreviated as DA [ 1 ] ), a simple organic chemical in the catecholamine family, is a monoamine neurotransmitter and hormone , which has a number of important physiological roles in the bodies of animals.
Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule ( ribofuranose ) moiety via a β-N 9 - glycosidic bond .
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor , also known as BDNF , is a secreted protein [ 2 ] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] BDNF is a member of the " neurotrophin " family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical "Nerve Growth Factor", NGF .
γ-Aminobutyric acid ( pron.: / ˈ ɡ æ m ə ə ˈ m iː n oʊ b juː ˈ t ɪr ɨ k ˈ æ s ɨ d / GAM -ə ə- MEE -noh-byew- TIRR -ik ; or GABA / ˈ ɡ æ b ə / ) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system . It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system . In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone . [ 2 ]