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African history

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Human evolution. Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes").

The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics.[1] The earliest documented members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis which evolved around 2.3 million years ago; the earliest species for which there is positive evidence of use of stone tools. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex. History of study[edit] Before Darwin[edit] Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa? May 2001 Lucy is the common name of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia.

Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Cleveland Natural History Museum, photo by Andrew. Around 30,000 years ago humans were anatomically and behaviorally similar throughout the world. One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens.9,10,3,6,13,15,14 Roughly 100,000 years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids.

In Africa and the Middle East there was Homo sapiens; in Asia, Homo erectus; and in Europe, Homo neanderthalensis. However, by 30,000 years ago this taxonomic diversity vanished and humans everywhere had evolved into the anatomically and behaviorally modern form. Understanding the issue Multiregional theory: homo erectus left Africa 2 mya to become homo sapiens in different parts of the world. Anatomical evidence Genetic evidence. History of Africa. African States between 500 BCE and 1500 CE The history of Africa begins with the prehistory of Africa and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, continuing into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. Some early evidence of agriculture in Africa dates from 16,000 BCE,[1] and metallurgy from about 4000 BCE. The recorded history of early civilization arose in Egypt, and later in Nubia, the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa.

During the Middle Ages, Islam spread through the regions. Crossing the Maghreb and the Sahel, a major center of Muslim culture was Timbuktu. Some notable pre-colonial states and societies in Africa include the Nok culture, Mali Empire, Ashanti Empire, Kingdom of Mapungubwe, Kingdom of Sine, Kingdom of Saloum, Kingdom of Baol, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of Kongo, Ancient Carthage, Numidia, Mauretania, the Aksumite Empire, the Ajuran Sultanate and the Adal Sultanate.

Prehistory[edit] Paleolithic[edit] [edit] Antiquity[edit] Ihmisen evoluutio. Ihmisen evoluutiolla tarkoitetaan ihmisen kehittymistä ja eriytymistä omaksi lajikseen ihmisen ja muiden apinoiden tai apinaihmisten yhteisestä kantamuodosta. Ihmisen evoluution tutkimukseen (jota kutsutaan myös paleoantropologiaksi) liittyy useita tieteenaloja, muun muassa fyysinen antropologia ja perinnöllisyystiede.

Ihmisellä tarkoitetaan tässä yhteydessä ensisijaisesti ihmisten (Homo) suvun jäseniä, mutta ihmisen evoluution tutkimus käsittelee yleensä myös muita hominideja, kuten suvun Australopithecus apinaihmisiä. Uutta tietoa on saatu viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana fossiililöydösten myötä runsaasti. Ihmisten, apinaihmisten ja ihmisapinoiden kehitystä kuvaavat sukupuut näyttivät vielä jokin aika sitten varsin selkeiltä.

Ihmisen kehitys pääpiirteittäin[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Suuntaa antava sukupuu, johon on sijoitettu suku Kenyanthropus ja Australopithecus siirretty läheiseksi sukulaislinjaksi. Ihmisen kehitys[muokkaa | muokkaa wikitekstiä] Africa. ApAfricaReview. Africa Map / Map of Africa - Facts, Geography, History of Africa. Print this map >>> LARGER (printable) AFRICA MAP As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils (discovered no where else) were found on the continent, some dating back 3.5 million years.

About 1.75 million years ago, early man spread throughout parts of Africa. They became aggressive hunters, lived in caves and used fire and their ability to create stone tools just to survive. The Neanderthals arose some 200,000 years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe. There is also clear evidence that they had control of fire, lived in caves, as well as open-air structures of stone and vegetation. One of the most important developments of primitive man was the creation of stone tools. In 3200 BC the Egyptian culture emerged along the lower reaches of the Nile River; it was among the earliest civilizations and their tools and weapons were made of bronze.

Print this map. Pre-colonial African History. These few notes aim to provide some historical background to better understand the events that have shaped the people I have met in the countries I visited in Africa. A) Almohads In 1121, Muhammad ibn Tumart, an Arab reformer was proclaimed Al Mahdi ("The Rightly Guided") in Morocco by a large following of disciples calling themselves "al-muwahhid" (those who proclaim the unity of God, hence the name Almohads). His successor the Berber Abd al-Mumin, conquered Morocco (1140-1147) and other parts of North Africa putting an end to the Almoravids. The Almohads also ruled Islamic Spain and Portugal from 1154 until the united kings of Castille, Aragón, and Navarre defeated them in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in 1212.

Then, their power declined and finally came to an end in Spain in 1232 and in Africa in 1269. A) Almoravids Around 1050, a Muslim religious military brotherhood known as the hermits (Arabic al-murabit, hence the name Almoravids) began its expansion in northwestern Africa. African History - Essays, Notes & Papers. StudyMode.com provides assistance to writers struggling with difficult essay topics, like African history. There are a wide variety of free research papers and free term papers available on StudyMode.com to help you complete your own assignment. Browse the list of college essay categories, or use the search engine to find a specific research paper related to African history. Documents 1 - 30 of 828 Go to Page. A_Short_History_of_Africa.pdf.