The IAD’s Institutional Grammar Tool (IGT) was first proposed by Sue Crawford and Elinor Ostrom (1995) to help systematically identify and code rules-in-form presented in various types of policy documents. The Institutional Grammar offers researchers an effective method for conducting a micro-level analysis of institutions. This valuable tool allows policy process scholars to ascertain the genetic code of policies that guide activities within various political arenas. The IGT provides a prescribed coding structure to identify and dissect institutional statements, such as those found in almost any policy, from legislative directives to organizational by-laws.
Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework emerged from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University, Bloomington. Pioneered by Elinor and Vincent Ostrom, it is the product of multiple collaborations among researchers from around the world who are interested in understanding how individuals behave in collective action settings and the institutional foundations that inform such arrangements. The IAD Framework offers researchers a way to understand the policy process by outlining a systematic approach for analyzing institutions that govern action and outcomes within collective action arrangements (Ostrom, 2007, 44). Institutions are defined within the IAD Framework as a set of prescriptions and constraints that humans use to organize all forms of repetitive and structured interactions (Ostrom, 2005, 3).
“Five Socio-Technology Trends that Change Everything in 21st Century Learning and Teaching” - Stephen Wilmarth, Center for 21st Century Skills, Yale ISP Fellow Abstract New digital technologies open the door on changes in learning and teaching that go much deeper than anything we’ve experienced in history. Converging technologies are augmented by new social patterns, creating a “virtuous cycle” of new knowledge creation. Until now, technology has made its impact on productivity in global commerce, as we’ve defined it by industrial age standards.
From Jeremy Malcom: "One final example of hierarchical ordering in open source software development is found in comparing two similar Linux-based operating system distributions, Debian GNU/Linux and Ubuntu. The Debian project was the first to be established, in 1993. Although not incorporated, an associated incorporated body Software in the Public Interest, Inc (SPI) was formed in 1997 to provide the Debian project (along with various other open source projects) with administrative and legal support. It does not take an active role in the development of the Debian distribution. The Debian project is led by a Project Leader who is elected by the project’s members, known as its Developers (or Maintainers), for a one year term.
Published August 31, 2005 Authored by Mary Rundle Abstract:
Published April 18, 2007 Authored by John Clippinger Purchase This Publication Book Description , from Amazon : The individual is not what he or she was.
Published April 30, 2007 Authored by David Weinberger Purchase This Publication Book Homepage Amazon.com Editorial Review: Human beings are information omnivores: we are constantly collecting, labeling, and organizing data. But today, the shift from the physical to the digital is mixing, burning, and ripping our lives apart.
Authored by Haochen Sun Download from SSRN Abstract:
Published September 30, 2007 Authored by Karim R. Lakhani , Jill Panetta Download from SSRN Abstract:
Published June 16, 2009 Authored by Bruce Etling , John Kelly , Rob Faris , John Palfrey , Internet and Democracy Download PDF December 21, 2010 Update: An adapted version of this paper, which focuses on the political aspects of the Arabic blogosphere and its role in the networked public sphere, appears in the December 2010 issue of New Media & Society .
Published August 01, 2011 Authored by Rob Faris , Hal Roberts , Rebekah Heacock , Ethan Zuckerman , Urs Gasser Download PDF Digital communication has become a more perilous activity, particularly for activists, political dissidents, and independent media. The recent surge in digital activism that has helped to shape the Arab spring has been met with stiff resistance by governments in the region intent on reducing the impact of digital organizing and independent media. No longer content with Internet filtering, many governments in the Middle East and around the world are using a variety of technological and offline strategies to go after online media and digital activists.
Published August 18, 2011 Authored by Hal Roberts , Ethan Zuckerman , John Palfrey Download PDF Given the rising awareness of the potential of the Internet as a political space and increasing government control over the space, it is easy to understand the widespread interest in finding technical solutions to Internet filtering. While filtering circumvention technologies emerged in 1996 with Bennet Hazelton’s Peacefire, designed to evade filtering within US high schools and universities, in recent years, there’s been a great deal of interest in the technical community and the general public in the topic of Internet circumvention.
Published August 18, 2011 Authored by Hal Roberts , Ethan Zuckerman , Rob Faris , Jillian York , John Palfrey Download PDF Over the past two years, we have undertaken several studies at the Berkman Center designed to better understand the control of the Internet in less open societies.
Published September 20, 2011 Authored by Erica Newland , Caroline Nolan , Cynthia Wong , Jillian York Download PDF In partnership with colleagues at the Center for Democracy & Technology, the Berkman Center is pleased to release a report on “ Account Deactivation and Content Removal: Guiding Principles and Practices for Companies and Users .” This report explores these dilemmas and recommends principles, strategies, and tools that companies and users alike can adopt to mitigate the negative effects of account deactivation and content removal. Through case examples, we outline the ways in which platform providers can have a positive impact on user trust and behavior by being more clear and consistent in developing ToU and other policies, responding to and evaluating suspected violations, and providing opportunities for recourse and appeal.