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Pneumonia. Student seeks to improve pneumonia vaccines. Almost a million Americans fall ill with pneumonia each year. Nearly half of these cases require hospitalization, and 5-7 percent are fatal. Current vaccines provide protection against some strains of the disease, but, according to University of Pennsylvania sophomore Ivan Ye, the severity of the problem speaks to "an increasing need for a universal vaccine. " The University Scholar from Iowa City, Iowa, has been conducting research this summer to develop just such a vaccine under the guidance of Hao Shen, associate professor of microbiology at Penn's Perelman School of Medicine. Ye says the opportunity to contribute to such important research as an undergraduate "was a major factor in deciding to matriculate at Penn. " The University Scholars Program at the Center for Undergraduate Research and Fellowships connected him to a research mentor, Brian Keith, adjunct professor of cancer biology in the School of Medicine.

"My research project builds off the current projects in Dr. New Advice for Vaccines to Stave Off Pneumonia - WSJ. Health Guide: Pneumonia. Definition An infection and inflammatory process of the bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitial tissue of the lung parenchyma. Clinical Signs May observe any of the following: Porphyrin (rust colored) stains about nose and/or eyes. Wheezing Small coughs Congestion Sneezing Increase in rapid breathing Labored breathing (use of abdominal muscles to breathe) Gasping.

Hunched posturing Piloerection (ruffled, bristled fur) Lethargy Poor or loss of appetite. Panic type movement related to inability to get enough oxygen into lungs. Changes in behavior due to illness (e.g. nipping, biting, avoidance) Feet and tail tip cyanosis (as oxygen in blood decreases) may be a late sign. Other Clinical Signs May hear Rales (crackling, often sounds like Rice Krispies® in milk, or a bubbling sound) when listening to chest with stethoscope. Etiology Pneumonia is the result of primary or secondary infections by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungal and parasitic infections.

Figure Diagnostics. Pneumonia. Pneumonia (nu-mo'ne-a) is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.[1][2] It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.[1][3] Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.[4] Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is, in general, admitted to hospital. Signs and symptoms Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia Fever is not very specific, as it occurs in many other common illnesses, and may be absent in those with severe disease or malnutrition.

Cause Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites Idiopathic Mechanisms Viral Bacterial Diagnosis.