In science , cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention , memory , producing and understanding language , learning , reasoning , problem solving , and decision making . Various disciplines, such as psychology, linguistics, and computer science all study cognition. However, the term's usage varies across disciplines; for example, in psychology and cognitive science , "cognition" usually refers to an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions .
Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects , or sensory patterns . In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding . More broadly, it is the state or quality of being aware of something. In biological psychology , awareness is defined as a human's or an animal's perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. [ edit ] Concept
In modern psychology , cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions : ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel "disequilibrium": frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc. [ 1 ] The phrase was coined by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When Prophecy Fails , which chronicled the followers of a UFO cult as reality clashed with their fervent belief in an impending apocalypse. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Festinger subsequently (1957) published a book called A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in which he outlines the theory.
Understanding (also called intellection ) is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person , situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.
Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century. Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It has been defined as: subjectivity , awareness , sentience , the ability to experience or to feel , wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood , and the executive control system of the mind. [ 3 ] Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. [ 4 ] As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness : "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives." [ 5 ]
Imagination , also called the faculty of imagining , is the ability to form new images and sensations that are not perceived through sight, hearing, or other senses.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without inference and/or the use of reason . [ 1 ] "The word 'intuition' comes from the Latin word 'intueri' which is usually translated as 'to look inside' or 'to contemplate'." [ 2 ] Intuition provides us with beliefs that we cannot justify in every case. For this reason, it has been the subject of study in psychology , as well as a topic of interest in the supernatural . The " right brain " is popularly associated with intuitive processes such as aesthetic abilities. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Some scientists have contended that intuition is associated with innovation in scientific discovery. [ 6 ] Intuition is also a common subject of New Age writings. [ 7 ] [ edit ] Intuition in Jungian psychology