BIOXRIV 01/12/20 The ecology of Nipah virus in Bangladesh: a nexus of land use change and opportunistic feeding behavior in bats. EARTH ISLAND JOURNAL 28/02/19 The Reservoir - In Bangladesh, a bat-borne virus is poised to become the next pandemic. Is an ecological intervention the answer? In Bangladesh, a bat-borne virus is poised to become the next pandemic.
Is an ecological intervention the answer? Steven Bedard This story originally appeared in bioGraphic, an online magazine about nature and sustainability powered by the California Academy of Sciences. February 28, 2019 The young man shifts nervously in the front seat of the van as it turns down increasingly narrow roads, then alleyways, and eventually dirt tracks. Whether our guide’s waning confidence is due to the fact that he doesn’t know the area as well as he first let on, or because revealing a local secret to a vanload of outsiders might be frowned upon isn’t clear.
The gachhi we’re searching for is not just any sap collector. In 2005, scientists drew a link between this nearly universally loved local delicacy and Nipah virus encephalitis, a disease that has killed nearly 75 percent of those who have contracted it since 2001, when Bangladesh’s first outbreak occurred. The team’s lead, Hossain M.
She laughs. NEJM 09/05/19 Transmission of Nipah Virus — 14 Years of Investigations in Bangladesh. HOPKINS BLOOMBERG PUBLIC HEALTH MAGAZINE - 2019 - Tracking the Nipah Virus. Long before dawn one August morning, Emily Gurley and her team set out for the roost site.
The night before, a research team in Faridpur, Bangladesh, had set up nets after the fruit bats flew off to forage. The nets caught about a dozen bats returning to the roost; now, Gurley and her colleagues gathered to collect samples from them. It was all part of a new endeavor to get one step ahead of a virus that can kill up to 90% of those infected with a terrifying combination of encephalitis and pneumonia. Despite the best tricks science had up its sleeve, the world’s epidemiologists always remained one step behind.
Scientists have been playing catch-up since they detected the first Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. Now, thanks to a $10 million grant from DARPA that seeks to keep U.S. soldiers safe from global infectious threats, Gurley has a chance to get ahead of Nipah. We live in a viral world. “I didn’t know much about the virus, but neither did anyone else in the world,” she says. CDC EID - JANV 2019 - Isolation and Full-Genome Characterization of Nipah Viruses from Bats, Bangladesh. Danielle E.
Anderson1, Ariful Islam1, Gary Crameri1, Shawn Todd, Ausraful Islam, Salah U. Khan, Adam Foord, Mohammed Z. Rahman, Ian H. Mendenhall, Stephen P. International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 72, July 2018, Enhancing preparation for large Nipah outbreaks beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a tragedy like Ebola in West Africa. Introduction Nipah virus, within the family Paramyxoviridae (Wang et al., 2001), was first identified in humans with encephalitis in the 1998–1999 outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore, involving at least 276 cases and 106 deaths (Chua et al., 2000).
The epidemiological link was from fruit bats infecting pigs that then served as an amplifier host and infected humans through close contact. Person-to-person transmission was rarely documented, and no further human cases have been reported from either country. Detailed analyses of the environmental changes that triggered this outbreak connecting wildlife (bats), livestock (pigs), and humans were reported (Pulliam et al., 2012, Daszak et al., 2013).
This triad of human, animal, and environmental health (One Health) makes Nipah virus outbreaks a prime example of what we have termed the associated pan-epidemic Anthropocene (Lucey et al., 2017). A ‘Nipah belt’ has been described across the western part of Bangladesh (Hahn et al., 2014). J Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 17. Characterization of the spatial and temporal distribution of Nipah virus spillover events in Bangladesh 2007 - 2013. CDC EID - DEC 2006 - Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Stephen P.
Luby* ( , Mahmudur Rahman†, M. Jahangir Hossain*, Lauren S. Blum*, M. Mushtaq Husain†, Emily S. CDC EID - JANV 2018 - Nipah Virus Contamination of Hospital Surfaces during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2013–2014. Md Zakiul Hassan ( , Hossain M.S.
Sazzad, Stephen P. Luby, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Md Muzahidul Islam, Ute Ströher, Sharmin Sultana, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Peter Daszak, Mahmudur Rahman, and Emily S. Gurley. BMC RESEARCH NOTES 26/06/17 A large-scale behavior change intervention to prevent Nipah transmission in Bangladesh: components and costs.
We spent $30,205 implementing the “no raw sap” intervention and $55,471 on the “only safe sap” intervention.
To scale these interventions up to 30 districts in Bangladesh where human infections with NiV have been identified, we estimated a cost of $2.6 million US$ for the “no raw sap” and $3.5 million US$ for the “only safe sap” intervention. NiV usually affects impoverished rural communities in Bangladesh, thus, affected families often experience a severe social and financial crisis [24, 25]. NiV kills people and leaves survivors with permanent neurological sequelae, similar to those experienced by some survivors of Japanese encephalitis [26, 27].
Sixty-one percent of NiV cases affected males with a mean age of 27  who could be the main wage earners of the family. Most died , and those that survived could not continue to work due to the neurological effects of NiV. CDC EID - Volume 22, Number 4—April 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014. M.
Saiful Islam. PLOS 09/11/15 Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh. Abstract Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season.
Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. CDC EID - FEV 2015 - Exposure-Based Screening for Nipah Virus Encephalitis, Bangladesh. Author affiliations: icddr,b,1 Dhaka, Bangladesh (H.M.S.
Neurology Asia 2004; 9 : 33 – 37 A report of 4 patients with Nipah encephalitis from Rajbari district, Bangladesh in the January 2004 outbreak – guatemalt
PLOS 21/10/10 Cluster of Nipah Virus Infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007. CDC EID - FEV 2012 - Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. IRIN 13/02/12 BANGLADESH: Outbreak of deadly Nipah virus. Gathering date palm sap in northwestern Bangladesh for a popular - and possibly deadly - local drink DHAKA, 13 February 2012 (IRIN) - An outbreak of the Nipah virus in northern Bangladesh has killed 30 people since the start of 2011, prompting national health warnings against the fatal pathogen spread by fruit bats.
Everyone who got infected, died. “Only by stopping the consumption of the raw sap, can this disease be stopped. Despite our many attempts at raising awareness, people are ignoring the warnings and as a result, are getting infected,” warned Health Minister A.F.M. Ruhal Haque. Palm tree sap, often served fresh, is a popular drink in rural areas. Six people from the northern Joypurhat District have died thus far in 2012 and 24 during the same period in 2011. “In the last two years, the mortality rate has been 100 percent.