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Varroase et résistance

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VETERINARY SCIENCES 20/08/20 Unraveling Honey Bee–Varroa destructor Interaction: Multiple Factors Involved in Differential Resistance between Two Uruguayan Populations. The ectoparasite Varroa destructor is the greatest biotic threat of honey bees Apis mellifera in vast regions of the world.

VETERINARY SCIENCES 20/08/20 Unraveling Honey Bee–Varroa destructor Interaction: Multiple Factors Involved in Differential Resistance between Two Uruguayan Populations

Recently, the study of natural mite-resistant populations has gained much interest to understand the action of natural selection on the mechanisms that limit the mite population. In this study, the components of the A. mellifera–V. destructor relationship were thoroughly examined and compared in resistant and susceptible honey bee populations from two regions of Uruguay. Mite-resistant honey bees have greater behavioral resistance (hygienic and grooming behaviors) than susceptible honey bees.

At the end of the summer, resistant honey bees had fewer mites and a lower deformed wing virus (DWV) viral load than susceptible honey bees. DWV variant A was the only detected variant in honey bees and mites. PLOS 17/01/20 Detection of amitraz resistance and reduced treatment efficacy in the Varroa Mite, Varroa destructor, within commercial beekeeping operations. Abstract The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the associated viruses it transmits are responsible for most instances of honey bee colony losses in the United States.

PLOS 17/01/20 Detection of amitraz resistance and reduced treatment efficacy in the Varroa Mite, Varroa destructor, within commercial beekeeping operations

As such, beekeepers utilize miticides to control Varroa populations. Widespread resistance has developed to the miticides fluvalinate and coumaphos. However, Varroa has largely maintained susceptibility to amitraz despite a long and extensive use history. Anecdotal reports of reduced amitraz effectiveness have been a widely discussed contemporary issue among commercial beekeepers.

INSECTS 08/12/20 Geographical Distribution and Selection of European Honey Bees Resistant to Varroa destructor. Open AccessReview by Yves Le Conte.

INSECTS 08/12/20 Geographical Distribution and Selection of European Honey Bees Resistant to Varroa destructor

EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY 27/02/19 Detection of tau-fluvalinate resistance in the mite Varroa destructor based on the comparison of vial test and PCR–RFLP of kdr mutation in sodium channel gene. UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL RURAL DE PERNAMBUCO CURSO DE GRADUAÇÃO EM ZOOTECNIA - 2019 - Thèse en ligne : CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE COLÔNIAS DE ABELHAS AFRICANIZADAS RESISTENTES OU NÃO A NOSEMA E VARROA DESTRUCTOR EM APIÁRIOS DO AGRESTE E ZONA DA MATA. REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL CONICET (AR) 20/03/19 Thèse en ligne : Resistencia a xenobióticos y procesos de detoxificación. Estudios moleculares en Varroa destructor y Apis mellifera. BUTINE_INFO 04/12/19 Le développement d’abeilles résistantes à Varroa destructor : une histoire de coopération en Wallonie.

Ce texte, co-écrit par Sacha d’Hoop, Didier Brick et Renaud Lavend’Homme, nous est transmis par les responsables du projet Arista Bee Research Belgium que nous remercions.

BUTINE_INFO 04/12/19 Le développement d’abeilles résistantes à Varroa destructor : une histoire de coopération en Wallonie

INSTITUTO POLITECNICO DE BRAGANCA - 2005 - How resistant to fluvalinate are varroa populations in Portugal? INTERNAT. J. ACAROL. - 2005 - The resistance of varroa mites (Acari: varroidae) to acaricides and the presence of esterase. Journal of Apicultural Research 30/06/17 Naturally selected honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies resistant to Varroa destructor do not groom more intensively. Introduction The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be an important cause of the reported high colony losses of the Western honey bee Apis mellifera in both Europe and the USA during the last decades (Rosenkranz, Aumeier, & Ziegelmann, 2010 Rosenkranz, P., Aumeier, P., & Ziegelmann, B. (2010).

Biology and control of Varroa destructor. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 103, S96–S119.10.1016/j.jip.2009.07.016[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], , [Google Scholar]). Although the mite does not directly kill the bees, it has large effects by weakening bees through feeding from the haemolymph of the pupae and the adult bees, and by transmitting bee viruses like deformed wing virus and acute bee paralysis virus. Together these effects can shorten the life span of individual bees and subsequently the whole colony may collapse (Boecking & Genersch, 2008 Boecking, O., & Genersch, E. (2008).

The original host of the varroa mite is the Asian honey bee A. cerana. Figure 1. Journal of Apicultural Research 23/09/17 Varroa sensitive hygiene contributes to naturally selected varroa resistance in honey bees. WILEY 18/10/18 Spatio‐temporal dynamics of Varroa destructor resistance to tau‐fluvalinate in Czechia, associated with L925V sodium channel point mutation. Extensive application of pyrethroids to control Varroa destructor, an invasive mite devastating bee colonies, has resulted in a global spread of resistant mite populations.

WILEY 18/10/18 Spatio‐temporal dynamics of Varroa destructor resistance to tau‐fluvalinate in Czechia, associated with L925V sodium channel point mutation

In this study, we analyzed the spatio‐temporal dynamics of resistant V. destructor populations in Czechia, stemming from the L925V mutation. Mites were collected during 2011–2018 directly or from winter beeswax debris, and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) and densitometry was used to detect the L925V mutation. Pooled samples of 10 mites were classified, based on their PCR–RFLP patterns, as tau‐fluvalinate‐sensitive (56%), resistant (9%), or mixed (35%), with the latter including sensitive and resistant homo‐ and heterozygotes. We identified two zones with higher frequencies of resistance, one in southern Moravia and the other in Bohemia.

The mutant populations were evenly distributed throughout the monitored districts, with a few temporal and spatial local fluctuations. PLOS 06/12/18 Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations. Abstract The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in combination with the viruses it vectors, is the main cause for global colony losses of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera.

PLOS 06/12/18 Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations

However, an isolated honeybee population established in 1999 on the Island of Gotland, Sweden has naturally acquired resistance to the mite, and has survived without mite control treatment for more than 18 years. A recent study has shown that this mite resistant (MR) population also appears to be resistant to Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Sacbrood virus (SBV) and tolerant to Deformed wing virus (DWV), relative to nearby mite susceptible (MS) honeybee populations. In this study, RNA sequencing was employed to corroborate these previous findings and identify other viral factors that may play a role in the enhanced survival of this mite resistant honeybee population. MOLECULAR ECOLOGY 27/03/19 A gene for resistance to the Varroa mite (Acari) in honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae. CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE - 2018 - Relationships between resistance characteristics of honey bees (Apis mellifera) against Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) LE SILLON BELGE 25/01/19 Des abeilles résistantes au varroa.

Des abeilles locales aux Buckfast, en passant par les Carnica Didier Brick élève des abeilles depuis 27 ans.

LE SILLON BELGE 25/01/19 Des abeilles résistantes au varroa

À ses débuts, il travaille durant 2 ans avec des abeilles descendantes d’abeilles noires locales. Un choc anaphylactique, suite à de trop nombreuses piqûres, l’oblige à se tourner vers des abeilles moins agressives. « De plus, c’était trop risqué de détenir des abeilles aussi agressives vu la densité de population dans la région », explique-t-il. Il acquiert des abeilles carnica, une race originaire de Slovénie, réputée pour sa douceur. Cette abeille est assez présente dans les Cantons de l’Est. Environnement favorable aux Buckfast Cette race présente de nombreuses qualités. « Elle est plus douce encore que la Carnica, l’essaimage est moins important et elle a une meilleure productivité », déclare l’apiculteur. L’environnement dans lequel l’apiculteur élève ses abeilles est favorable à la conservation du caractère doux de la race car il est saturé en Buckfast. Rev Mex Cienc Pecu 2011;2(1):93-99 Evaluation of the resistance of the mite Varroa destructor to the fluvalinate in colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Yucatan, Mexico.

VETAGRO-SUP LYON - 2013 - Thèse en ligne : Action sanitaire en production apicole : gestion de la varroose face à l'apparition de résistance aux traitements chez Varroa destructor. INTERNAT. J. ACAROL. - 2005 - The resistance of varroa mites (Acari: varroidae) to acaricides and the presence of esterase. INSECTS 11/01/17 Influence of Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Management Practices on Insecticide Sensitivity in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) INFECTION, GENETICS AND EVOLUTION - 2015 - A selective sweep in a Varroa destructor resistant honeybee (Apis mellifera) population. APIDEOLOGIE - 2002 - First report of Varroa destructor resistance to pyrethroids in the UK.

PLOS 13/06/14 Increased Tolerance and Resistance to Virus Infections: A Possible Factor in the Survival of Varroa destructor-Resistant Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Abstract The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases.

PLOS 13/06/14 Increased Tolerance and Resistance to Virus Infections: A Possible Factor in the Survival of Varroa destructor-Resistant Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR) European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so.

INSTITUTO POLITECNICO DE BRAGANCA - 2005 - How resistant to fluvalinate are varroa populations in Portugal? Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association annual meeting, Orlando, Florida, February 5-8, 2006 Factors Influencing the Adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees. BEEKEEPING - Comment faire face à la recrudescence des Varroa résistants? Réduction de la population de Varroa au printemps Si l’on dénombre, fin mai, plus de trois Varroa par jour, il est conseillé de ne pas attendre jusqu’à août, mais d’appliquer, à l’occasion de la prochaine période sans miellée, un traitement d’une semaine à l’acide formique ou deux traitements ponctuels.

BEEKEEPING - Comment faire face à la recrudescence des Varroa résistants?

De tels traitements augmentent la teneur en acide formique dans le miel, c’est pourquoi ils ne doivent être appliqués qu’un cas de force majeur. Si l’on découpe à deux ou trois reprises le couvain de mâles, on arrive à réduire la population de Varroa d'environ de moitié et, par la formation d’un nuclei, d’un tiers environ. Il vaut donc la peine d’intégrer de telles mesures dans la conduite du rucher.

Figure 1 : les méthodes de lutte alternative contre Varroa ne conduisent au succès que si elles sont intégrées dans une stratégie de lutte. Traitement de longue durée à l’acide formique On trouve sur le marché différents diffuseurs pour les traitements de longue durée. La Fédération des apiculteurs du Québec - DÉVELOPPEMENT DE LA RÉSISTANCE NATURELLE DE L’ABEILLE À LA VARROASE DANS LE CONTEXTE DE L’ÉLABORATION D’UNE STRATÉGIE DE LUTTE INTÉGRÉE. ANSES 20/06/05 Avis du 26 mai 2005 relatif à l'apparition des résistances du parasite Varroa, responsable d'une maladie parasitaire réputée contagieuse des abeilles, face aux médicaments vétérinaires utilisés couramment dans la lutte contre cette maladie.

Apidologie 31 (2000) 437–441 Control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. resistant to fluvalinate and amitraz using coumaphos. PLOS 18/12/13 An Amino Acid Substitution (L925V) Associated with Resistance to Pyrethroids in Varroa destructor. The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an important pest of honeybees and has played a prominent role in the decline in bee colony numbers over recent years.

PLOS 18/12/13 An Amino Acid Substitution (L925V) Associated with Resistance to Pyrethroids in Varroa destructor

Although pyrethroids such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin can be highly effective in removing the mites from hives, their intensive use has led to many reports of resistance. To investigate the mechanism of resistance in UK Varroa samples, the transmembrane domain regions of the V. destructor voltage-gated sodium channel (the main target site for pyrethroids) were PCR amplified and sequenced from pyrethroid treated/untreated mites collected at several locations in Central/Southern England. A novel amino acid substitution, L925V, was identified that maps to a known hot spot for resistance within the domain IIS5 helix of the channel protein; a region that has also been proposed to form part of the pyrethroid binding site.

Figures Editor: Guy Smagghe, Ghent University, Belgium Copyright: © 2013 González-Cabrera et al. ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH - DEC 2013 - Rothamsted researchers have developed a sensitive assay for the detection and management of resistance to pyrethroids in Varroa-infected honey bee hives. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) invests in world-class bioscience research and training on behalf of the UK public. Our aim is to further scientific knowledge, to promote economic growth, wealth and job creation and to improve quality of life in the UK and beyond. Funded by Government, BBSRC invested over £484M in world-class bioscience in 2013-14. We support research and training in universities and strategically funded institutes.