PLOS 19/05/17 Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014. Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) ‘as a public health problem’ by 2020.
The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT. Results With 3,797 reported cases in 2014, the corresponding milestone (5,000 cases) was surpassed, and the 2020 global target of ‘fewer than 2,000 reported cases per year’ seems within reach. Discussion HAT elimination appears to be on track. Author summary Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by tsetse flies, which has been responsible for devastating epidemics in the 20th century. Citation: Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, Paone M, Diarra A, Grout L, et al. (2017) Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014.
Introduction. RFI 14/04/17 PRIORITE SANTE - Côte d’Ivoire: vers l'élimination de la maladie du sommeil. Etre en bonne santé est un besoin universel.
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PLOS 27/12/16 A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia. Abstract Background This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM) for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies.
Methods The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation. PLOS 27/12/16 Insecticide and Repellent Mixture Pour-On Protects Cattle against Animal Trypanosomosis. Abstract Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. Methodology/Principal Findings Two prospective surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a pour-on formulation composed of cypermetrhin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxid and citronella (Vectoclor, CEVA Santé Animal). PLOS 12/12/16 Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis.
Abstract Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)).
Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. FAO - 2016 - PERSPECTIVES The Programme Against African Trypanosomosis. RFI 23/09/16 Maladie du sommeil : les trypanosomes se cachent dans la peau et non dans le sang. Des chercheurs de l'Institut Pasteur et de l'Inserm viennent de découvrir que les trypanosomes, les parasites responsables de la maladie du sommeil, se cachaient dans la peau des patients alors que les scientifiques les cherchaient jusqu'alors dans le sang.
Une découverte importante puisqu'elle devrait permettre la mise en place de nouvelles méthodes de détection plus efficaces. Désormais, les 30% de porteurs sains qui continuaient de transmettre le parasite à la mouche tsé-tsé, vecteur de la maladie du sommeil, pourront être diagnostiqués et traités. « Si on parvient assez rapidement à mettre en place des méthodes de détection des parasites présents dans la peau, on pourra prendre en charge un plus grand nombre de patients », explique Brice Rotureau, spécialiste de la transmission du trypanosome à l'Institut Pasteur. Chronologie et chiffres clés. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2016 Jun 9;83(1):a1172. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Ohio State University - 2011 - Thèse en ligne : MODELING TSETSE FLY HOST PREFERENCE AND AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS IN CAMEROON. Global Veterinaria 7 (4): 330-336, 2011 Study on the Prevalence of Major Trypanosomes Affecting Bovine in Tsetse Infested Asosa District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria 5 (4): 215-219, 2010 Prevalence of Small Ruminant Trypanosomosis and Tsetse Fly Challenge in Upper Didessa Valley, Ethiopia. Acta Parasitologica Globalis 5 (2): 91-97, 2014 Bovine Trypanasomosis and Tsetse Fly Survey in Bure District, Western Ethiopia. ACTA PARASITOLOGICA GLOBALIS - 2015 - Study on Spatial Distribution of Tsetse Fly and Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Other Risk Factors: Case Study in Bedele Woreda, Ilu Aba Bora Zone, South Western Ethiopia. PARASITES & VECTORS 16/12/15 Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.
PARASITES & VECTORS - 2015 - Trypanosome infection rates in tsetse flies in the “silent” sleeping sickness focus of Bafia in the Centre Region in Cameroon. During the last decades, considerable efforts were undertaken to map the distribution of tsetse flies as well as their infection rates in order to address the problem linked to trypanosomiasis transmitted by tsetse flies at the continental level .
PARASITES & VECTORS 23/05/16 Molecular identification of different trypanosome species and subspecies in tsetse flies of northern Nigeria. Sample collection and DNA purification Tsetse fly samples were collected from Yankari National Park and Wuya areas between March and August 2012 using biconical traps.
Yankari National Park is in the south-central part of Bauchi State (9.749°N, 10.499°E), in northeastern Nigeria. It is composed of savannah grassland with well-developed patches of woodland. Wuya is in Niger State (10.000°N, 6.167°E) located in north-western Nigeria. It is a mountainous area with wooded savannah vegetation. PARASITES & VECTORS - 2015 - Developing a continental atlas of the distribution and trypanosomal infection of tsetse flies (Glossina species) Unicellular parasites causing African trypanosomoses are transmitted to humans and animals alike by the bite of infected tsetse flies (Genus: Glossina).
The diseases they cause, named sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, continue to affect public health and socio-economic development in vast areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The annual economic losses attributed to African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) are measured in billions of dollars , while 70 million people are considered at risk of contracting the human form of the disease, i.e. human African trypanosomosis (HAT) .
Despite the severe impact of the disease, trypanosomosis control suffered from serious neglect for a number of years . More recently, important initiatives at the international level have tried to redress this, by setting ambitious targets for interventions against tsetse and trypanosomoses at the continental level. PLOS 11/10/11 Managing Tsetse Transmitted Trypanosomosis by Insecticide Treated Nets - an Affordable and Sustainable Method for Resource Poor Pig Farmers in Ghana. Abstract An outbreak of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis resulted in more than 50% losses of domestic pigs in the Eastern Region of Ghana (source: Veterinary Services, Accra; April 2007).
In a control trial from May 4th–October 10th 2007, the efficacy of insecticide-treated mosquito fences to control tsetse was assessed. Two villages were selected – one serving as control with 14 pigsties and one experimental village where 24 pigsties were protected with insecticide treated mosquito fences. The 100 cm high, 150denier polyester fences with 100 mg/m2 deltamethrin and a UV protector were attached to surrounding timber poles and planks. FAO - 2010 - TSETSE AND TRYPANOSOMOSIS INFORMATION. BMC 20/10/13 Farmers’ perception of impacts of bovine trypanosomosis and tsetse fly in selected districts in Baro-Akobo and Gojeb river basins, Southwestern Ethiopia. In order to improve the welfare and security of rural communities in Africa, particularly Ethiopia, rapid method for assessing risk and diagnosing urgent problems are needed for the control of both human and animal diseases.
Therefore, this survey was conducted with the objective of seeking information about constraints of cattle production, diseases of cattle particularly the impact of bovine trypanosomosis and its management in selected districts in Baro-Akobo and Gojeb river basins. The results of the survey indicated that diseases resulting in high mortality and morbidity were highly prevalent in both districts and perceived as the most important constraints associated to cattle production. Of the reported diseases, trypanosomosis has been perceived as the number one obstacle to cattle production in the study areas. In the present survey, trypanosomosis accounted for significant annualized cattle deaths. Veterinary Science Technology 2015, 6:3 Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Apparent Density of Tsetse and Other Biting Flies in Mandura District, Northwest Ethiopia. BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL 04/02/16 Tsetse Flies (Glossina) as Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Review.