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PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002371-17 Sustainable herbicides. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001566-17 Sustainable use of pesticides and environmental protection. The regulatory framework governing pesticides mainly concerns the licensing and marketing procedure for these products and their subsequent sustainable use.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001566-17 Sustainable use of pesticides and environmental protection

For the ‘sustainable use of pesticides’ in particular, each Member State is obliged to take practical measures in the context of a multi-annual National Action Plan, with the additional indirect aspect of reducing pesticide use. Even though the statistics are rather scarce and confused and the representativeness of the sample of annual surveys is uncertain, it should be noted that the incidence of poisoning by pesticides is growing at a rate of 4-5% per year, while pesticide trafficking continues(1). The level of knowledge about the sustainable use of plant protection products and the certification/assessment of such knowledge are lagging far behind. A significant portion of professional pesticide users continues to follow incorrect practices either out of ignorance or because the risks are being downplayed. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001505-17 Incidence of cancer among farmers.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-009678-16 The active ingredient in pesticides is not compliant with the labelling. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008770-16 Banning certain active substances of plant protection products. Various European villages and cities are banning the active substance glyphosate and glyphosate-based products from use in public places(1).

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008770-16 Banning certain active substances of plant protection products

The decision to ban these products is mainly taken by local political entities (e.g. city or village councils). The Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest has apparently decided on and implemented a ban on glyphosate not only in public places, but also on both agricultural and non-agricultural farms. Under European legislation(2), the active substances (such as glyphosate, captan and chlorpyrifos) of plant protection products are authorised at European level, and products based on these active substances (e.g. RoundUp, Durban, etc.) are authorised by the individual Member States. Also under European legislation(3), the use of pesticides can be minimised or banned in certain areas. According to Article 1 of EU Directive 2009/128/EC, the health of citizens should be protected. 1. 2. 3. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à quesion E-008250-16 Banned pesticide residues. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-009318-16 Approval of active substance 6-N-Benzylaminopurine.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008262-16 Financing the inspection cost of pesticide application equipment. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-008562-16 Substances de base déposées inadmissibles en phytosanitaire et sous dérogation en biocide. Le goudron de pin est un produit qui permet la protection des bois: c'est un répulsif contre les champignons, les bactéries et les parasites et un cicatrisant pour les plaies des arbres.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-008562-16 Substances de base déposées inadmissibles en phytosanitaire et sous dérogation en biocide

Il a fait l'objet d'un dossier d'approbation de «substance de base» déposé au début de 2015 par une PME française. Cette substance bénéficie d'une dérogation en biocide, mais attend toujours de recevoir l'approbation en phytosanitaire. Pour être mis sur le marché, ce produit nécessite en effet d'être admis en phytosanitaire. Cette approbation passe par des évaluations successives de la part de la DG Santé et sécurité alimentaire, de l'Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) et du Comité permanent des végétaux, des animaux, des denrées alimentaires et des aliments pour animaux (CPVADAAA). Or, il semblerait que le dossier soit problématique pour la DG Santé et sécurité alimentaire, qui n'a toujours pas donné son admissibilité.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008119-16 Pesticide residues in fruit mueslis. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-003144-15 Annex VI to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 not yet published. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-007660-16 Use of pesticides. Under Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides, Member States must adopt National Action Plans which set quantitative objectives, targets, measures and timetables in an effort to reduce the risks inherent in and impact of pesticide use on human health and the environment.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-007660-16 Use of pesticides

The Italian regions are responsible for carrying out data collection programmes to monitor pesticide use, as provided for in Legislative Decree 152/2006, which transposed Directive 2000/60/EC. This monitoring is carried out using the system set up by the regional water management authorities, which ISPRA (the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) has stated is inadequate to cover the areas and the number of substances involved. The monitoring carried out by the Apulian authorities, particularly as regards the number of substances covered, falls short of the average national standard, which is in itself regarded as insufficiently stringent. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001040-16 Révision du règlement sur les pesticides. A German study by Sebastian Stehle and Ralf Schulz of the Institute of Environmental Sciences at the University of Koblenz-Landau reviewed 160 analyses carried out in the 28 European Union Member States between 1972 and 2012.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001040-16 Révision du règlement sur les pesticides

The study warns of the presence in Europe’s rivers and lakes of concentrations of pesticides well above permissible levels. The study covered 23 pesticides, and the limits were exceeded in nearly 40% of the samples tested. What is worse, the same was true for 93% of the samples of sediments, such as mud on river‐ and lakebeds, taken in Germany. It is clear that regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 on the evaluation and authorisation of active substances in pesticides is not ruling out unacceptable risks for people and the environment. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002407-16 Fruit with pesticide residues. Recent studies carries out by the authorities show that approximately half of the fruit from the previous year had pesticide residues.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002407-16 Fruit with pesticide residues

According to the legal regulations, the level of harmful substances on this type of food corresponds to the standards in force, but if they are repeatedly consumed they can cause health problems. Studies carried out by the Laboratory for the Control of Pesticide Residues determined that 70% and 63% respectively of peaches and apples analysed in 2015 contained substances used to treat and preserve fruit in warehouses.

The most serious health problems which can be caused by the repeated consumption of these substances are cardiovascular and neurological and have serious repercussions, particularly in children. Recently in Romania the deaths of children under the age of 1 and hundreds of cases of illness in children of a similar age have been reported, with one of the potential causes being the use of these pesticides. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-016011-15 Demande d'approbation de substances de base conformément au règlement (CE) n° 1107/2009 concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques.

La maladie du bois de la vigne est en constante progression ces dernières années.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-016011-15 Demande d'approbation de substances de base conformément au règlement (CE) n° 1107/2009 concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques

Conformément au règlement (CE) n° 1107/2009 concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques, et plus particulièrement son article 23, la France a déposé un dossier d'approbation de «substance de base» en mai 2015 pour faire avancer les solutions de biocontrôle à cette maladie. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-000506-16 Bypassing the law by drafting guidance on negligible exposure to pesticides. Strict approval criteria were introduced in Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 to protect both humans and the environment from exposure to substances of very high concern.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-000506-16 Bypassing the law by drafting guidance on negligible exposure to pesticides

Hence, substances with carcinogenic, reprotoxic or endocrine-disruptive properties should not be approved ‘unless the exposure … under realistic proposed conditions of use, is negligible, that is, the product is used in closed systems or in other conditions excluding contact with humans’. The Commission is now drafting a guidance document which will allow the most harmful pesticides to be approved, thus bypassing the law. 1. Could the Commission explain the scientific basis for the exposure level proposed as being acceptable in the document? 2. 3. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-014243-15 Action by the Commission to ensure implementation of pesticides legislation. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-014525-15 Registration of plant protection products and the SCFCAH.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-014732-15 Use of plant protection products outside agriculture. The Netherlands Government has recently announced a ban (with effect from 1 January 2016) on the use of any and all plant protection products — including low-risk products — outside agriculture.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-014732-15 Use of plant protection products outside agriculture

It is basing this decision on Directive 2009/128/EU, which allows Member States to limit the use of products outside agriculture under certain conditions (Articles 11 and 12). However, a ban on the use of all products seems to infringe Regulation 1107/2009/EU, which regulates the use of products (Article 1(1)) and/or Directive 2009/128/EU, which assigns preference to the use of low-risk plant protection products (Article 12). 1. Does the Commission perceive any legal contradiction between the decision of the Netherlands Government to ban all use of plant protection products outside agriculture and the provisions of Directive 2009/128/EU and Regulation 1107/2009/EU? If not, why not? 2. 3. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-013140-15 Authorisation of pesticides during the transition period.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-012163-15 Volatile pesticides. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-011312-15 Pesticide residues from land belonging to private individuals. Drinking water in Denmark and Europe is a valuable resource that we must safeguard.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-011312-15 Pesticide residues from land belonging to private individuals

In Denmark it is possible to drink water straight from the tap, and Danish people want this situation to continue. In some areas of the country, however, boreholes are having to be shut down because the quantities of pesticides they contain are too high. For instance, it was recently reported that Aarhus Vand, which supplies drinking water to the country’s second largest city, is having to close one in five boreholes on account of pesticide residues. This is a familiar problem in many European countries. Even though by far the largest quantity of pesticides comes from agriculture, 44 tonnes of pesticides are sold to garden owners in Denmark alone. Does the Commission agree that only ready-mixed pesticides should be sold to private individuals? Does it agree that more should be done to prevent private individuals from using pesticides altogether?

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-010059-15 Protection des travailleurs exposés aux pesticides au cours de leurs travaux de pulvérisation dans les champs. Les directives «machines» 2006/42/CE et 2009/127/CE définissent les exigences essentielles de protection de la santé des travailleurs qui sont exposés à l'inhalation de pesticides, ce qui est particulièrement le cas lors des travaux de pulvérisation dans les champs. 1. Concernant les machines équipées d'une cabine utilisées pour le traitement des cultures (automoteurs, tracteurs), les obligations de sécurité créées par ces directives s'imposent‐elles à leur utilisation effective (lors de l'application des pesticides dans les champs)?

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-008169-15 Pesticides: impacts sanitaires et environnementaux. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006989-15 Tests et effets sur l'homme des pesticides utilisés par l'agriculture. Selon des documents qu'a pu obtenir le Réseau européen d'action contre les pesticides, les responsables du commerce américain ont poussé l'Union européenne à renoncer à interdire 31 pesticides contenant des perturbateurs endocriniens susceptibles de favoriser des cancers et l'infertilité masculine, dans le cadre des négociations sur le traité transatlantique. On apprend ainsi que, le 26 juin 2013, une délégation de haut niveau de la chambre de commerce américaine a rendu visite aux responsables de l'Union européenne afin d'insister pour que l'Union abandonne les nouveaux critères prévus pour l'identification des perturbateurs endocriniens.

Et l'Union a fini par céder devant ces responsables américains pour qui il est inutile de créer des catégories et des listes de substances illicites. Ainsi, la législation prévue pour 2014 a été repoussée à 2016 malgré les conséquences médicales évoquées plus haut. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-009162-15 Pesticides used in agriculture. Pesticides, which are now allowed and can be used on European fields, may determine a large range of health problems due to exposure, either through direct work with toxic substances or through the consumption of food. Glyphosate, which is the most commonly used pesticide worldwide and which has been used for decades, has carcinogenic potential and is associated with various forms of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, as well as with diseases of newborn infants. Does the Commission consider that priority should be given to the prohibition of pesticides that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction (CMRs, categories 1 and 2), endocrine disruptors (EDCs) and neurotoxic chemicals?

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006989-15 Tests et effets sur l'homme des pesticides utilisés par l'agriculture. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005071-15 Five pesticides declared potentially carcinogenic. Five pesticides were recently declared ‘possibly or probably’ carcinogenic to human beings by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organisation (WHO). The risks were assessed on the basis of studies of agricultural exposure in the US, Canada and Sweden, and tests on laboratory animals. The products concerned include the herbicide glyphosate, one of the most commonly used worldwide, as well as malathion and diazinon. The insecticides tetrachlorvinphos and parathion, which are already subject to bans or restrictions in many countries, were also classified as ‘possibly’ carcinogenic.

Glyphosate, which is the herbicide produced in the largest quantities, is the active ingredient in ‘Roundup’ — one of the most widely used products in agriculture, forestry and private gardens. According to the IARC, glyphosate was found in the air, water and food, and people living close to areas treated with this herbicide are at particular risk of exposure. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006198-15 Annual EFSA study of pesticide residues in food. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-006989-15 Tests et effets sur l'homme des pesticides utilisés par l'agriculture. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004464-15 Pesticide residues in imported food. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004418-15 Annual report on pesticide residues in food for 2014.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004245-15 The economic impact of scaling back the use of active substances in plant protection. Czech hops are inherently a minority crop. The Czech Republic is the EU’s largest producer of hops. Czech hop-growing is a high-employment sector characterised by its added value, with Czech hops revered for their high quality across the world. An export-heavy commodity, roughly 80% of the hops grown every year are supplied to other countries. One of the long-standing problems besetting Czech hop-growers is the remorseless pressure they face from the European Commission to scale down the use of active substances. The available hop-protection arsenal comprises an ever shrinking range of appropriate authorised products, which take a lot of time and money to develop.

Has the Commission analysed in detail the economic impact that these measures will have on the hop-growing sector at large? PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-009260-14 Arc méditerranéen — Utilisation des pesticides et insecticides. Certaines municipalités méditerranéennes doivent faire face à une recrudescence sans précédent des nuisances liées aux moustiques adultes, notamment de type «aedes» (quatre cas autochtones de chikungunya récemment détectés à Montpellier). En cause, les inondations et le climat inhabituellement chaud pour la saison. Les organismes chargés des traitements rencontrent de grandes difficultés pour le traitement et disent être notamment freinés par la réglementation en vigueur (directive 98/8/CE). PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-003374-13 Contrôle de l'utilisation, dans les produits agricoles importés sur son terr.

Afin de protéger la santé des citoyens européens et de garantir la qualité alimentaire des produits agricoles cultivés sur son territoire, l'Union européenne a interdit il y a quelques années de nombreux composés chimiques jugés dangereux. Toutefois, nombre de pays tiers, particulièrement en Amérique latine, qui exportent vers l'Union un volume important de produits agricoles (soja, dérivés du lait et de la viande, etc.) n'appliquent pas les mêmes règles. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - réponse à question E-007351/2012 Révision des protocoles d'évaluation des pesticides. Alors que la France vient d'interdire le pesticide Cruiser utilisé sur le colza en raison de son impact nocif sur les abeilles, un avis de l'Autorité de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) daté de mai 2012 met en cause les protocoles d'évaluation des insecticides qui sont utilisés depuis vingt ans pour analyser l'impact des phytosanitaires sur l'écosystème.

Le rapport de l'EFSA souligne que les expositions prolongées et intermittentes ne sont pas évaluées en laboratoire, ni l'exposition par inhalation ou encore l'exposition des larves. Il relève d'autres problèmes, comme la taille des champs traités, qui est trop limitée pour déterminer de manière exhaustive les conséquences de l'utilisation des insecticides. EUROPE 13/01/09 Questions and Answers on Plant Protection Products. Brussels, 13 January 2009 What are plant protection products?

Plant protection products, or pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides), are chemical formulations containing an active substance and other ingredients. They are important for the protection of plants and crops in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and gardening. Active substances are chemicals used in plant protection products and are the essential component which enables the plant protection product to protect the plant against insects or fungi which destroy plants. There are currently around 500 active substances on the EU market. Requêtes dans le site du PARLEMENT EUROPEEN concernant les réponses aux questions écrites de la 7ème législature (2009-2014)

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN – Réponse à question:E-008625/2011 Reconnaissance des maladies provoquées par les pesticides en tant que mala. E-010733/2011 Volume de pesticides commercialisés dans l'Union européenne au cours de la période 2010-2011.