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J. FUNCT. BIOMATER. 27/11/21 Recent Advancements in the Technologies Detecting Food Spoiling Agents. To match the current life-style, there is a huge demand and market for the processed food whose manufacturing requires multiple steps.

J. FUNCT. BIOMATER. 27/11/21 Recent Advancements in the Technologies Detecting Food Spoiling Agents

The mounting demand increases the pressure on the producers and the regulatory bodies to provide sensitive, facile, and cost-effective methods to safeguard consumers' health. In the multistep process of food processing, there are several chances that the food-spoiling microbes or contaminants could enter the supply chain. In this contest, there is a dire necessity to comprehend, implement, and monitor the levels of contaminants by utilizing various available methods, such as single-cell droplet microfluidic system, DNA biosensor, nanobiosensor, smartphone-based biosensor, aptasensor, and DNA microarray-based methods.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 05/11/21 Towards Real-Time and Affordable Strain-Level Metagenomics-Based Foodborne Outbreak Investigations Using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing Technologies. Introduction Foodborne diseases represent a major burden worldwide (WHO, 2015).

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 05/11/21 Towards Real-Time and Affordable Strain-Level Metagenomics-Based Foodborne Outbreak Investigations Using Oxford Nanopore Sequencing Technologies

Foodborne pathogens can cause large outbreaks affecting multiple people sometimes in different regions. FRONT. MICROBIOL. 04/11/21 Application of Lab-on-Chip for Detection of Microbial Nucleic Acid in Food and Environment. Introduction Pathogenic microorganisms refer to any microorganism capable of injuring its host by competing with it for metabolic resources, destroying its cells or tissues, or secreting toxins.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 04/11/21 Application of Lab-on-Chip for Detection of Microbial Nucleic Acid in Food and Environment

The injurious microorganisms include viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, chlamydia, mycoplasma, etc. They can reside in food and the environment (e.g., water, soil, and air) and transmit disease, posing a serious threat to human health (Table 1). About 420,000 deaths and 600 million foodborne illnesses caused by 31 species of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms were reported in 2010. The burden of foodborne disease is rather high in low-income areas such as Africa, South-east Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean (Havelaar et al., 2015).

Table 1. Cell culturing and identification of the pathogen type by microscopy or other biochemical tests is the most common method of detecting pathogenic microorganisms, but it takes several days. FRONT. MICROBIOL. 01/11/21 Editorial: New Advances in Identification and Quantification of Foodborne Pathogens. Microbiological analysis is an integral part of food safety quality control and monitoring systems.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 01/11/21 Editorial: New Advances in Identification and Quantification of Foodborne Pathogens

Recent outbreaks, associated with consumption of a variety of contaminated foods, have highlighted the difficulty in monitoring critical points of contamination along the food chain. The rapid and precise detection (and/or quantification) of foodborne pathogens, used appropriately along the food supply chain, represents a powerful tool to prevent outbreaks of foodborne disease.

With this purpose in mind, and particularly for short shelf-life foods, it is necessary to increase the arsenal of available methods and develop innovative and time-effective assays which are able to complete the analytical process in as short time as possible. In this context, the major benefit of molecular methods, as alternatives to classical culture-based methods, is the significant reduction of the time taken for analysis. THE MEDUCATOR 12/06/13 Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection: An Evaluation of Current and Developing Methods. Authors Grace Zhang McMaster University Keywords: foodborne pathogens, ELISA, bacteria detection, nucleic-acid, flow cytometry, biosensors,

THE MEDUCATOR 12/06/13 Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection: An Evaluation of Current and Developing Methods

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 October; 18(10): 2078. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities. The development of novel and high-tech solutions for rapid, accurate, and non-laborious microbial detection methods is imperative to improve the global food supply.

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 October; 18(10): 2078. Current Technical Approaches for the Early Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Challenges and Opportunities

Such solutions have begun to address the need for microbial detection that is faster and more sensitive than existing methodologies (e.g., classic culture enrichment methods). Multiple reviews report the technical functions and structures of conventional microbial detection tools. These tools, used to detect pathogens in food and food homogenates, were designed via qualitative analysis methods. The inherent disadvantage of these analytical methods is the necessity for specimen preparation, which is a time-consuming process. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 06/08/19 Fishing in the Soup – Pathogen Detection in Food Safety Using Metabarcoding and Metagenomic Sequencing. Introduction During foodborne outbreaks reliable techniques are required to identify the source of infection as fast as possible to prevent further infections with the causative agent.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 06/08/19 Fishing in the Soup – Pathogen Detection in Food Safety Using Metabarcoding and Metagenomic Sequencing

To date, many outbreaks are solved by epidemiological investigations without microbiological evidence. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY 15/01/20 Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans. Acute respiratory disease (ARD) accounts for a large proportion of all acute morbidities, as well as mortalities, worldwide, among which acute viral respiratory tract infection is the leading cause (appropriate 80%).1 The major viral pathogens include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, adenovirus, and rhinovirus.

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY 15/01/20 Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans

In children below the age of five, the combined global mortality of only influenza and RSV reaches 300 000 deaths each year.2 Other respiratory viruses, such as adenovirus and rhinovirus, are associated with lower mortality, but significant morbidity, causing a huge economic burden.3 The highly pathogenic emerging and reemerging coronaviruses that may cause epidemics or pandemics, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV), have posed great threat to global public health.

Influenza viruses belong to the family of Orthomyxoviridae . 1Mahony JB, Petrich A, Smieja M. Food Control Volume 98, April 2019, Food and feed safety: Cases and approaches to identify the responsible toxins and toxicants. Aarts et al., 1993 J.M.M.J.G.

Food Control Volume 98, April 2019, Food and feed safety: Cases and approaches to identify the responsible toxins and toxicants

Aarts, M.S. Denison, L.H.J. De Haan, J.A.C. Schalk, M.A. Organohalogen Compounds, 13 (1993), pp. 361-364 Aartse et al., 2017 A. MICROORGANISMS 23/09/19 Microfluidic-Based Approaches for Foodborne Pathogen Detection. Food safety is of obvious importance, but there are frequent problems caused by foodborne pathogens that threaten the safety and health of human beings worldwide.

MICROORGANISMS 23/09/19 Microfluidic-Based Approaches for Foodborne Pathogen Detection

Although the most classic method for detecting bacteria is the plate counting method, it takes almost three to seven days to get the bacterial results for the detection. Additionally, there are many existing technologies for accurate determination of pathogens, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), but they are not suitable for timely and rapid on-site detection due to time-consuming pretreatment, complex operations and false positive results. Therefore, an urgent goal remains to determine how to quickly and effectively prevent and control the occurrence of foodborne diseases that are harmful to humans. ►▼ Show Figures Graphical abstract.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY 02/01/19 Validation by an interlaboratory collaborative trial of EN ISO 21528 - microbiology of the food chain - horizontal methods for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. 1. Introduction Within the framework of the European food hygiene legislation, the Commission Regulation No (EC) 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs contains provisions requiring the use of analytical methods in the food chain (Anonymous, 2005a). In this Regulation a reference method has been established for each microbiological criterion. ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 24/05/18 Fecal pollution: new trends and challenges in microbial source tracking using next‐generation sequencing. Community‐based microbial source tracking using shared OTUs As NGS becomes a standard community‐assessment method in microbial ecology, computational methods for analysing the large amount of data generated for MST studies have emerged (Knights et al., 2011; Unno et al., 2010).

The rise of these technologies has enabled researchers to use community‐based approaches to more completely characterize microbial communities in a variety of samples in a relatively rapid and increasingly economic fashion (Staley and Sadowsky, 2016). Thus determining the overlap in community composition between the bacteria in the water versus feces of suspected animal sources would enable a researcher to track fecal contamination sources, at least qualitatively (Boehm et al., 2013; Korajkic et al., 2015).

The use of OTUs, currently defined by ≤ 3% sequence dissimilarity, allows hundreds of fecal bacterial species to be characterized, without a need for culturing. SourceTracker. EFSA 27/08/18 Use of next‐generation sequencing in microbial risk assessment. Food safety, next-generation sequencing, whole genome sequencing, microbial riskassessment, Illumina, Oxford Nanopore Technologies, MiSeq, MinION Abstract: Despite the ever increase in rigorous control and monitoring measures to assure safe food along the entire farm‐to‐fork chain, the past decade has also witnessed an increase in microbial food alerts.

Hence, research on food safety and quality remain of utmost importance. Complementary, and at least as important, is the necessity to be able to assess the potential microbial risks along the food chain. Risk assessment relies on sound scientific data. Doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2018.e16086 EFSA Journal 2018;16(S1):e16086 © European Food Safety Authority, 2018 Disclaimer: FOOD QUALITY - DEC 2014 - Lab Implementation of ISO 11133:2014. FOOD NAVIGATOR 11/07/18 ‘A new era in food safety’: Clear Labs wants to disrupt the food safety sector. Mahni Ghorashi, Clear Labs' co-founder, said that the development of its Clear Safety platform – based on Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) - represents a “vast improvement​” over existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

“One of the biggest upsides with NGS is that you don’t have to do different tests for each pathogen, as with PCR. Instead of just one answer at a time, you can ask almost infinite questions about a sample and get the answers all in one test. Clear Safety enables multi-target analysis, which increases throughput and reduces costs by screening an array of pathogens in the same or different matrices in parallel.”​ It is also more accurate than other testing methodologies, he told FoodNavigator.

“Existing PCR methods have high rates of false negatives and false positives. “A false negative means that the test comes out clean, but there’s actually a pathogen there. EFSA 29/06/18 Final report of ENGAGE ‐ Establishing Next Generation sequencing Ability for Genomic analysis in Europe. AGRICULTURE_GOV_AU - MARS 2010 - Measurement of uncertainty in veterinary diagnostic testing. AFDO 07/06/17 FDA responses to AFDO resolutions 2016 - Resolution #1 - FDA’s Use of Private Laboratories. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - APRIL 2018 - New Nanotechnology Platform Developed for the Rapid Detection of Foodborne Viruses.

FOOD QUALITY - JUNE/JULY 2013 - Analytical Trends in Measuring Food Quality. FOOD QUALITY - OCT/NOV 2013 - Rapid Detection's Role in Marine Food. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12: 399–408, 2012 Development of Rapid Assessment Method to Determine Bacterial Viability Based on Ultraviolet and Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy Analysis Including Application to Bioaerosols. PURDUE UNIVERSITY 15/05/18 Technology turns smartphones into on-the-spot detectors for foodborne illnesses, other dangerous contaminants. Purdue technology, including a smartphone cradle, turns phones into on-the-spot detectors for foodborne illnesses. (Image provided) Download image WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Purdue University researchers have developed detection technology that allows a typical smartphone to analyze produce for foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, which has been linked to a deadly outbreak in romaine lettuce.

The technology involves both hardware – a smartphone cradle – and software in the form of an application that is downloaded on the phone. The combination allows the smartphone to be used as an on-site luminometer, an instrument used to measure light. The lettuce or other produce is rinsed with an enrichment liquid containing a modified phage, a virus for bacteria. The cradle on the phone maximizes the photon collection by using diffusive reflection material to help capture a maximum amount of light, which may not be visible by the naked eye. The U.S. Sources: Euiwon Bae, ebae@purdue.edu. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - JANV 2017 - Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States. EUROPA_EU - 2014 - COMMISSION EUROPEENNE - Review of methods for the rapid identification of pathogens in water samples.

OIE 26/06/17 Présentation : Report on Activities of the Biological Standards Commission 2016‒2017. PROVEINTERLABORATORIO_IZS_IT. Rapports annuels jusqu'en 2016 et protocoles d'exécution des tests par microorganismes. Au sommaire: Bluetongue Bluetongue PCR Brucella - Alimenti Brucella - Diagnostica Brucella MLVA Brucellosi Campylobac.

FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - AUGUST/SEPT 2017 - Au sommaire: Benefits of the ISO Cooperative Agreement Program (CAP) for Food Safety We present a conversation with members of the Association of Public Health Laboratories on why a laboratory might join the ISO C. Public Health Labs | August/September 2017. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016 Sep; 6(3): 301–308. An Overview on Novel Microbial Determination Methods in Pharmaceutical and Food Quality Control. NCRCRD Innovations in Agriculture via YOUTUBE 01/12/15 C3d: Moving Laboratory Research on Pathogen Detection into Commercial Practice. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - APRIL/MAY 2016 - Food Testing: Selecting a Contract Laboratory. J. Agric. Food Chem 22/01/14 Food Analysis Using Artificial Senses.

FOOD SAFETY EMERGING ISSUES, TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS - 2015 - Au sommaire: Application of Molecular Methods for Traceability of Foodborne Pathogens in Food Safety Systems A Descriptive Tool for Tracing Microbiological Contaminations. FSSAI_GOV_IN 06/09/16 GOOD FOOD LABORATORY PRACTICES (GFLPs) FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS AUTHORITY OF INDIA 03/08/12 Quick test for some adulterants in food. FAO - DEC 1997 - VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR FOOD CONTROL. Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1426. Aptamer-Based Technologies in Foodborne Pathogen Detection. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 19:15-28 · July 2013 Advanced applications of hyperspectral imaging technology for food quality and safety analysis and assessment: A review - Part II: Applications. You are using an outdated version of Firefox which is not supported by ResearchGate anymore. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade your browser now. Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science 04/09/15 A Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Platform for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens.

BMC - DEC 2012 - Using metagenomic analyses to estimate the consequences of enrichment bias for pathogen detection. Enrichment procedures are often used to increase the probability of detection of a particular pathogen. HACCP AUSTRALIA FOOD SAFETY BULLETIN - Issue 23 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Testing is a tool: Improved microbial food safety assurance: tools and technologies to reduce the guesswork. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE 23/06/16 FDA Uses Whole Genome Sequencing to Pinpoint Foodborne Outbreak Origins. News | June 23, 2016 By Staff Source: FDA. FAS USDA 08/06/16 FSSAI Publishes Manuals on Test Methods for Various Food Products_New Delhi_India_6-3-2016. Food Anal. Methods 02/07/10 Validation of Innovative Food Microbiological Methods According to the EN ISO 16140 Standard. You are using an outdated version of Firefox which is not supported by ResearchGate anymore.

For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade your browser now. ARS USDA - JUNE 2015 - AgResearch Magazine - Pathogen Investigators Get a New Tracking Tool. A fast-reproducing genus of bacterium, Salmonella, can—depending on the group, or serotype—be a virulent pathogen that sickens farm animals and humans. Now, Agricultural Research Service veterinary medical officer Jean Guard has developed an improved, cost-effective diagnostic tool and dataset for identifying various strains of Salmonella. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD MICROBIOLOGY - 1996 - DNA based typing, identification and detection systems for food spoilage microorganisms: development and implementation. FSANZ - 2013 - User guides. Au sommaire: Microbiological Limits for Foods Methods of Analysis for Foods.

Skip to main content. FOOD_DTU_DK 03/06/15 Method provides more knowledge about harmful substances in food packaging. A new method for faster analysis of chemicals in paper and board food packaging materials has been developed in a PhD project at the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. The method can be used to increase existing knowledge of which chemicals in packaging materials are potentially harmful. Paper and board is used extensively in food packaging materials e.g. in baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and cereal packaging, which come into direct contact with the food. Despite the extensive use of this type of packaging there is only limited knowledge about both the chemical composition of the packaging and the toxicological effects of these chemical substances.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 06/2015; Food Adulteration: Sources, Health Risks and Detection Methods. MICROGEN - A Guide to Environmental Microbiological Testing for the Food Industry. AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE – AOUT 2014 - Approved methods for microbiological testing of meat and meat products. JOURNAL OF HYGIENIC ENGINEERING AND DESIGN - ROLE AND COMPARISON OF ATP TEST WITH CLASICAL MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS IN HYGIENE DESIGN. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 64(Cap.5): 107-128 (2014) Emerging RNA-seq applications in food science. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 11/03/16 Evaluation of PCR based assays for the improvement of proportion estimation of bacterial and viral pathogens in diarrheal surveillance. FOOD CONTROL - 2016 - Relevance of microbial finished product testing in food safety management.

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING AND FOOD (Athens - Greece) - MAI 2011 - Au sommaire: MFS1296 Integration of new/rapid methods and ICTs to improve food safety and quality. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING AND FOOD (Athens - Greece) - MAI 2011 - Au sommaire: MFS917 Detection of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING AND FOOD (Athens - Greece) - MAI 2011 - Au sommaire: MFS311 Novel NMR - Technology to assess food quality and safety.

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING AND FOOD (Athens - Greece) - MAI 2011 - Au sommaire: MFS1281 Hyperspectral Imaging Technology: A Non-Destructive Tool for Food Quality and Safety Evaluation and Inspection. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 03/11/15 Multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens by mPCR and capillary electrophoresis after using a universal pre-enrichment medium. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 22/12/15 Editorial: Exploring Bacterial Colonies in Solid Foods or Model Foods Using Non-Destructive Techniques. Food Microbiology . 02/2002; A comparison of surface sampling methods for detecting coliforms on food contact surfaces.

ARS USDA - JUNE 2015 - AgResearch Magazine - Pathogen Investigators Get a New Tracking Tool. Pathogens 2015, 4(2), 307-334; Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges. FOOD_DTU_UK 21/05/15 Uncovering foodborne outbreaks using the latest technology. Food Microbiology Volume 46, April 2015, FISHing for bacteria in food – A promising tool for the reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10824-10837 Bioluminescence ATP Monitoring for the Routine Assessment of Food Contact Surface Cleanliness in a University Canteen. CDC MMWR 13/03/15 Bacterial Enteric Infections Detected by Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests — FoodNet, United States, 2012–2014. EFSA 16/02/15 EFSA's 20th Scientific Colloquium on Whole Genome Sequencing of food-borne pathogens for public health protection. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE – DEC 2014 - Lab Outsourcing: What You Need to Know.

MICROBIOLOGY AUSTRALIA - MAI 2013 - Food Safety. Au sommaire: Microbiological testing of foods: what, why, how. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - JUNE/JULY 2013 - Comparison of Microbiology Testing Practices. INRA/ONIRIS - Présentation : Quantifying Food Spoilage. Structure and Function of Food Engineering 22/08/12 Au sommaire: Nucleic Acid-Based Methods to Identify, Detect and Type Pathogenic Bacteria Occurring in Milk and Dairy Products.

Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/07/13 A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2013 Recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)a. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE October/November 2013 Au sommaire: THE MEDUCATOR 12/06/13 Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection: An Evaluation of Current and Developing Methods. ARS USDA 03/05/14 New detection methods improve food safety. FSIS USDA - JUNE 2013 - Establishment Guidance for the Selection of a Commercial or Private Microbiological Testing Laboratory. MICROBIOLOGY AUSTRALIA - MAI 2013 - Food Safety. Au sommaire:Microbiological testing of foods: what, why, how.

AFNOR 24/09/12 Validation of alternative analysis methods Food application - LISTE OF QUALIFIED EXPERT LABORATORIES – Issue on 2. Structure and Function of Food Engineering 22/08/12 Au sommaire:Nucleic Acid-Based Methods to Identify, Detect and Type Pathogen. AOAC EUROPE - MAI 2012 – Présentations:Definitions of rapid, proprietary, screening and alternative methods, Hilde Skår Norli, N. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - JUNE/JULY 2013 - Comparison of Microbiology Testing Practices. BIOCATALYSIS - 2000 - RAPID ATP METHOD FOR THE SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN FOOD AND WATER SAMPLES. MICROBIOLOGY AUSTRALIA - MAI 2013 - Food Safety. Au sommaire:Foodborne viruses: a focus on challenges associated with detection. ACCRED QUAL ASSUR - 2013 - Human errors and relability of test results in analytical chemistry. RSC 02/05/13 What causes most errors in chemical analysis?

TRENDS IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY - 2004 - Trends in quality in the analytical laboratory. II. Analytical method validation and qua. 3M - 2009 - Présentation : The importance of validated rapid methods for international tarde. FDA - JUILLET 2013 - Présentation : Microbiological Method Validation: How Do We Prove that a Method is Fit for Purpose? FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - OCT/NOV 2013 - Simplifying the Use of Microbiological CRMs in Food Safety Microbiology Laboratories. FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE OCT/NOV 2013 - What Defines a Laboratory Quality System? FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY OF IRELAND - AVRIL 2011 - Best Practice for Testing Foods when Assessing Compliance with the Microbiologic. ALTEX - 2013 - Food for Thought … Uncertainty of Testing Methods – What Do We (Want to) Know?

IRB_HR - 2010 - Validation and measurement uncertainty estimation in food microbiology: differences between quantitative and qua. FSA 12/06/13 Présentation : HOW THE ANALYST IS AFFECTED BY INITIATIVES IN THE CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION. AOAC 24/02/12 AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environment. FDA - Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Trends in Food Science & Technology Volume 19, Issue 3, March 2008, Understanding and modelling bacterial transfer to foods: a r.