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PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005569/2021 Dégradation des récifs coralliens. Représentant moins de 0,25 % de l’environnement marin, les coraux font partie des écosystèmes les plus inestimables du globe. Abritant un quart des espèces marines, pourtant, leur disparition s’accélère (entre 2009 et 2018, 14 % des coraux sont morts à l’échelle planétaire(1)).

Ils sont menacés par des événements naturels de plus en plus prolifères, comme les activités humaines via le tourisme de masse, la surpêche ou encore les pollutions ainsi que l’acidification des océans. La France abrite 10 % des récifs coralliens (quatrième rang mondial avec 55 000 km²), répartis principalement dans nos Outre-mer (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, La Réunion, Nouvelle-Calédonie, Polynésie française, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy, Wallis-et-Futuna et les îles Éparses). Présent sur l’intégralité des océans, ce pays a une responsabilité importante pour préserver cet écosystème indispensable à la vie des océans, primordiaux pour l’air. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005612/2020 Ocean warming. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002922/2020 Enhancing the safety of container shipping – averting disasters – preventing environmental damage. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002828-19 Waste around the island of Sálvora (A Coruña)

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002416-19 Thousands of tonnes of oil spilled into the Atlantic. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002241-19 Pollutant emissions from cruise traffic. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-000135-19 Marine pollution in the North Sea. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005840-18 Legislation on marine environment (paraffin) IFREMER 06/10/17 Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatory–Novel European eXpertise for coastal observaTories-JERICO-NEXT. JRC_EC_EUROPA_EU - 2016 - Harm caused by Marine Litter. JRC_EC_EUROPA_EU - 2017 - Potential chemical contaminants in the marine environment. JRC_EC_EUROPA_EU - 2016 - Identification of marine chemical contaminants released from sea-based sources.

UTRECHT UNIVERSITY - 2006 - Dissertation en ligne : The European Community and Marine Environmental Protection in the International Law of the Sea: Implementing Global Obligations at the Regional Level. INSTITUTE FOR MARINE RESOURCES AND ECOSYSTEM STUDIES - 2009 - Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf. h2o monitoring via YOUTUBE 13/07/16 Bioaccumulation in California. EUROPE 06/12/12 Pollutants released by seafloor trawling affect marine life. Marine Environmental Research 18/05/16 Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas. Environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 53, 614e619. Hylland, K., Beyer, J., Berntssen, M., Klungsøyr, J., Lang, T., Balk, L., 2006a.

May persistent organic pollutants affect fish populations in the North Sea? J. Environ. Hylland, K., Gubbins, M.J., Robinson, C., Burgeot, T., Martínez-G omez, C., Lang, T Svavarsson, J., Thain, J.E., Vethaak, A.D., 2015a. Logical Assessment of Contaminant Impacts in Selected European Coastal and Offshore Marine Areas (in this issue). Hylland, K., Lang, T., McIntosh, M., Thain, J.E., Utvik, T.I.R., Vethaak, A.D Wosniok, W., 2006b. The BECPELAG workshop. Effects of Contaminants in Pelagic Ecosystems, pp. 3e8. Hylland, K., Nissen-Lie, T., Christensen, P.G., Sandvik, M., 1998. Of cytochrome P4501A and metallothionein in flounder, Platichthys flesus. Environ. Hylland, K., Ruus, A., Grung, M., Green, N., 2009.

Tissue contaminants and biomarker responses in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). J. Hylland, K., Sandvik, M., Skåre, J.U., Beyer, J., Egaas, E., Goksøyr, A., 1996. 2015b. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-004889-16 Oil exploration and prospecting activities in the Algarve. As part of its work to implement Birds and Habitats Directives via the Natura 2000 network, Portugal has undertaken to ‘conserve habitats and populations of species on the basis of how the areas have been classified’ (Article 8(1) of Decree-Law 140/99). Two of the contracts awarded in the past nine years in Portugal granting concession rights for the prospection, exploration, development and production of oil, (onshore — Algarve basin and ‘duas áreas’ in 2015), are being publicly contested by local authorities, regional organisations, citizens' movements and political parties. This partly attributable to the fact that the activities covered by these contracts may not be compatible with the obligations to preserve the environment or biodiversity in Natura 2000 network-protected areas in the Algarve. 1.

Is the Commission aware of these contracts? 2. Is the Commission aware that these prospecting activities could jeopardise the Natura 2000 network? FOOD PAKAGING FORUM 07/06/16 Effects of microplastics on fish. In an article published on June 2, 2016 by The Washington Post, journalist Chelsea Harvey reports on a new study investigating the effects of microplastic polystyrene particles on the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The study was published in the peer-reviewed journal Science on June 3, 2016 and conducted by researchers Oona M. Lönnstedt and Peter Eklöv from Uppsala University, Sweden. Lönnstedt and Eklöv exposed perch eggs and larvae to water containing i) no microplastic particles, ii) a concentration of about 10,000 particles per m3 (average level observed on the Swedish coast), and iii) a concentration of about 80,000 particles per m3 (high level, also observed on the Swedish coast). Fish eggs exposed to microplastics had a lower hatch rate as compared to the controls.

Hatched fish larvae exposed to microplastics were also smaller and less physically active as compared to non-exposed larvae. Read more Chelsea Harvey (June 2, 2016). Lorraine Chow (June 3, 2016). Reference. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON - JULY 2015 - Economic valuation of marine litter and microplastic pollution in the marine environment: An initial assessment of the case of the United Kingdom.

Marine Policy Volume 60, October 2015, Pages 107–118 A proactive approach for maritime safety policy making for the Gulf of Finland: Seeking best practices. Open Access Highlights A regional proactive approach to maritime safety is needed in the Gulf of Finland. Best practices are sought from the nuclear, fisheries, and maritime fields.

The proposed framework sees maritime safety as a holistic system. The framework requires scientific risk assessment and stakeholder input. Abstract A rapid increase in maritime traffic together with challenging navigation conditions and a vulnerable ecosystem has evoked calls for improving maritime safety in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Keywords Maritime risk; Oil transportation; Proactive; Risk governance; Shipping safety; Stakeholders; The Gulf of Finland 1. The global economy is based on an efficient transportation of goods among countries and continents, and today over 90% of the world's trade is transported by sea [1].

Maritime safety in the GoF is managed basically by the same prescriptive international regulations that are found in all the world's seas [7]. Ecologic Institute - 2015 - Présentation : Marine pollution regulation in the EU. OSPAR 26/03/12 North Sea Manual on Maritime Oil Pollution Offences. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-013045-15 Pollution of the oceans.

ICES_DK - MARS 2015 - Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms (WGITMO) Environmental Pollution. 02/2002; Contaminants and their effects on estuarine and coastal organisms in the United Kingdom in the late twentieth century. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-003944-15 Reducing pollution caused by maritime transport. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-002577-15 Soil pollution along the Adriatic and Ionian coastlines. MARINE ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH SERIES (Irlande) - 2011 - An Assessment of Dangerous Substances in Water Framework Directive Transitional and Coastal Waters 2007-2009. GIZ_DE - 2014 - Présentation : Marine Pollution: Impacts, challenges, approaches. BFR – JANV 2014 - Recommendations for coastal closure as a result of pollution due to liquid cargo residues. MARINE ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH SERIES (Irlande) - 2011 - An Assessment of Dangerous Substances in Water Framework Directive Transit.

DEFRA – Marine. Issue Our seas give us vital goods and services, including healthy, secure food supplies and transport routes. They also help to regulate our climate and give millions of people the chance to enjoy the natural environment. The UK has some of the richest marine ecosystems in the world, including over 8,000 different species and important seabird populations. The competing demands for uses of our seas can put pressure on the marine environment. Some habitats and species are threatened, for example by climate change and ocean acidification. Actions Planning the future sustainable use of marine resources We’re working with the Marine Management Organisation (MMO) to have marine plans in place for all English seas by 2022.

We have published the east inshore and offshore marine plans and are now implementing them. The MMO has started preparing plans for the south inshore and offshore areas. Protecting the seas from pollution We’re working towards an amendment of the London Protocol. Background. EUROPE - Marine Environment and Coasts. The European Commission launched a review of the EU ICZM Recommendation , with a view to a follow-up proposal by the end of 2011.

An impact assessment was conducted to explore the need and options for future EU action and to assess potential social, economic and environmental consequences that new initiatives proposed by the European Commission may have. On 23 March the Commission launched an on-line public consultation , for 8 weeks, to seek the views of stakeholders and all interested parties to inform the impact assessment. The consultation report can be downloaded here . To complete the consultation the European Commission organised a public hearing on 30th of May 2011 to discuss options for future EU action in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The OURCOAST Stakeholder Conference " Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe: the way forward " took place on 27-28 October in Riga.

Commission to analyse possible action against use of plastic bags. European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) Free search 'Free search' - enter a word or simple phrase — the character string may contain A-Z, a-z, 0-9 and white space only. The database is searched for occurrences of this string. All records containing the string are returned in the results table. The free search is applied to the following fields in the database: data set name and summary, geographical coverage, parameters and instruments. Begin year By selecting a 'Begin year', only data sets from and after the selected year will be chosen. End year By selecting an 'End year', only data sets from and before the selected year will be chosen. Duration You can refine your search by choosing a minimum duration of the data set.

Location Data theme Each data set is keyed with one or more entries from this menu list. Return each data set with all 'selected' data themes.Return each data set with one or more of the 'selected' data themes. Instrument theme Each data set is keyed with one or more entries from this menu list. Ocean/sea area. EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY - 2010 - Marine and coastal environment — SOER 2010 thematic assessment. Drivers and impacts The impacts on Europe's seas and coasts are driven by human activities such as fishing and aquaculture,land-based activities such as fertiliser and pesticide use in agriculture, chemical pollution from industries and shipping, and the exploitation of oil, gas and other resources.

Further negative factors include the introduction of alien species, marine litter, noise, urbanisation and tourism, and the destruction of habitats for ports and off‑shore structures. Many of these impacts are exacerbated by climate change. As a result, the ecosystem services provided by Europe's seas and coasts are deteriorating, including a decline in goods such as fish and recreational quality. Fishing pressures in most of Europe's seas exceed sustainable levels and safe biological limits (SBL), and since 1985, there has been a general decline in fish catches. Toxic chemicals, while on a downward trend, are found in high concentrations in fish and shellfish in most of Europe. Response. EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY - 2010 - THE EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT STATE AND OUTLOOK 2010 MARINE AND COASTAL ENVIRONMENT.

MYOCEAN - JULY 2011 - GMES MARINE ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SERVICE AS DEVELOPED BY MYOCEAN. Le site MEDITERRANEAN PANDA. EUROPE 11/03/08 Questions and Answers on criminal law measures against maritime pollution. Brussels, 11 March 2008 Why is the Commission presenting a new proposal for a directive? The new proposal for an amending directive on ship-source pollution aims to fill a legal vacuum created by a ruling of the European Court of Justice in October 2007 which annulled Framework Decision 2005/667/JHA "to strengthen the criminal-law framework for the enforcement of the law against ship-source pollution".

Out of concern about the illegal operational discharges of polluting substances from ships at sea, and in the aftermath of major accidental oil spills, the Commission had presented in 2003 both a proposal for a Directive, based on the EC Treaty, "on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of sanctions, including criminal sanctions, for pollution offences" ( IP 03/316 ), and for a Framework Decision, based on the EU Treaty, "to strengthen the criminal-law framework for the enforcement of the law against ship-source pollution".

What are the next steps for implementing the Directive?