FORESTS - Special Issue "The impact of Climate Change on Alpine Treelines and Vegetation Dynamics" - Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 November 2021. Special Issue Editor Dr.
Pavel A. MoiseevE-MailWebsiteGuest Editor Laboratory of GIS technologies, Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta St., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144, RussiaInterests: climate-induced dynamics of forest-steppe and highlands vegetation Special Issue Information The average surface temperature of the Earth has increased appreciably in the last centuries and the most significant changes occurred in polar and mountainous regions. Dr. Manuscript Submission Information Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Keywords This special issue is now open for submission. FORESTS 21/03/21 Assessment of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Montane Forests in the Peruvian Andes: Implications for Conservation Prioritization. Future climate change will result in profound shifts in the distribution and abundance of biodiversity in the Tropical Andes, and poses a challenge to contemporary conservation planning in the region.
However, currently it is not well understood where the impacts of climate disruption will be most severe and how conservation policy should respond. This study examines climate change impacts in the Peruvian Andes, with a specific focus on tropical montane forest ecosystems, which are particularly susceptible to climate change. Using an ensemble of classification models coupled with different climate change scenarios, we estimate high and low potential impacts on montane forest, by projecting which areas will become climatically unsuitable to support montane forest ecosystems by 2070. These projections are subsequently used to examine potential impacts on protected areas containing montane forest. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1. FORESTS 05/03/21 Monitoring Forest Phenology in a Changing World.
In many phenological studies, cost represents a major and critical factor in the choice of method.
Costs range over several orders of magnitude depending on the price per unit of monitoring equipment and the price of acquiring data from those units (Table 1). Single time point panchromatic high resolution satellite imagery (50 cm) can cost around US$24 per km2 with a minimum order of 100 km2 (=US$2400) and medium resolution (150 cm) around US$5 per km2 with a minimum order of 500 km2 (=US$2500) . However, free satellite data is also available at high spatial and temporal resolutions, especially if the study area is located in North America or Europe , with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA: ~30 m with ~16 day revisit frequency) and the European Space Agency (ESA: ~10 m with ~5 day revisit frequency) hosting freely available datasets [149,150].
Generally, as the monitoring device decreases in size, so does the cost and the area covered. FORESTS 19/01/21 Dynamics of Carbon Accumulation in Tropical Dry Forests under Climate Change Extremes. We analyze here how much carbon is being accumulated annually by secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) and how structure, composition, time since abandonment, and climate can influence the dynamics of forest carbon accumulation.
The study was carried out in Santa Rosa National Park in Guanacaste province, Costa Rica and Mata Seca State Park in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Total carbon storage and carbon accumulation were obtained for both sites from the sum of the aboveground carbon and belowground carbon gain plus the annual litterfall. Carbon accumulation of these TDFs varied from 2.6 Mg C ha−1 y−1 to 6.3 Mg C ha−1 y−1, depending on the age of the forest stands. FORESTRY STUDIES - 2013 - Simple visualization of climate change for improving the public perception in forest pathology. FORESTS - Special Issue "Impacts of Climate Change on Tree Physiology and Responses of Forest Ecosystems" - Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2021. Phoebe bournei is a precioustimber species and is listed as a national secondary protection plant in China.
However, seedlings show obvious photosynthetic declinewhen grown long-term under an elevated CO2 concentration (eCO2). The global CO2 concentration is predicted to reach 700 μmol·mol−1 by the end of this century; however, little is known about what causes the photosynthetic decline of P. bournei seedlings under eCO2 or whether this photosynthetic decline could be controlled by fertilization measures. To explore this problem, one-year-old P. bournei seedlings were grown in an open-top air chamber under either an ambient CO2 (aCO2) concentration (350 ± 70 μmol·mol−1) or an eCO2 concentration (700 ± 10 μmol·mol−1) from June 12th to September 8th and cultivated in soil treated with either moderate (0.8 g per seedling) or high applications (1.2 g per seedling) of nitrate or ammonium.
JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 01/12/20 Managing forest regeneration and expansion at a time of unprecedented global change. FORESTS 24/11/20 Species, Climatypes, Climate Change, and Forest Health: A Conversion of Science to Practice for Inland Northwest (USA) Forests. Research Highlights: This paper integrates disparate research results pertaining to climate change impacts to 12 co-occurring forest tree species and their climatypes such that management options for the ecosystem as a whole become discernible.
Background and Objectives: The ecosystem under analysis is the Thuja-Tsuga forest ecosystem, occupying ca. 121,500 km2 in a largely mountainous setting in the interior northwest, USA. Our goal is to present land management options tied directly to climate-change in a straightforward framework for both the current and future generations. FORESTS 08/10/20 The Impact of Climate Variations on the Structure of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Assemblage in Forests and Wetlands.
MDPI and ACS Style Kirichenko-Babko, M.; Danko, Y.; Musz-Pomorksa, A.; Widomski, M.K.; Babko, R.
The Impact of Climate Variations on the Structure of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Assemblage in Forests and Wetlands. FAS USDA 24/09/20 Germany: Climate Change Damages German Forests. FORESTS 14/09/20 Tree Line Shift in the Olympus Mountain (Greece) and Climate Change. One of the effects of climate change is, among others, changes to forest ecosystems.
Research Highlights: Temperature increases and upward tree line shifts are linked in many studies. However, the impact of climate change on tree lines has not been studied in Greece. FORESTS 15/09/20 Using a Trait-Based Approach to Compare Tree Species Sensitivity to Climate Change Stressors in Eastern Canada and Inform Adaptation Practices. Despite recent advances in understanding tree species sensitivities to climate change, ecological knowledge on different species remains scattered across disparate sources, precluding their inclusion in vulnerability assessments.
Information on potential sensitivities is needed to identify tree species that require consideration, inform changes to current silvicultural practices and prioritize management actions. A trait-based approach was used to overcome some of the challenges involved in assessing sensitivity, providing a common framework to facilitate data integration and species comparisons.
FRONT. ECOL. EVOL. 19/03/19 Climate Change and Geographic Ranges: The Implications for Russian Forests. 1.
Introduction The concept of biogeography, which studies the distribution of species and ecosystems in a geographic space, plays a fundamental role when analyzing feedback between climate change and forests (Dale et al., 2001; Bonan, 2008; Allen et al., 2010). First, forest ecosystems have different carbon sequestration/stock performances in function of the species and/or the climate zone considered; consequently, forests influence the terrestrial carbon budget and the climate mitigation potential in multiple ways (Piovesan and Adams, 2000; Valentini et al., 2000; Houghton, 2005; Schaphoff et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2014). GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 24/05/20 Climate change induces multiple risks to boreal forests and forestry in Finland: A literature review. The magnitude of future emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the development of their atmospheric concentrations affect the energy balance of the Earth and global climate. Several alternative GHG scenarios, termed Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), have been developed (van Vuuren et al., 2011).
Under the most optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, climate change mitigation succeeds well, whereas under the most pessimistic RCP8.5 scenario mitigation fails totally. Under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the global mean temperature will rise about 1, 2 and 4°C by 2100, respectively, compared with the recent period of 1986–2005 (IPCC, 2013). Due to the feedback mechanisms in the climate system, the warming will be larger at high latitudes in northern Europe (i.e. boreal zone) than close to the equator. It is also larger in winter than in summer. Science of The Total Environment Volume 685, 1 October 2019, Substantial declines in urban tree habitat predicted under climate change.
Résumé traduit : À l'échelle mondiale, les gouvernements locaux augmentent leurs investissements dans des projets d'écologisation urbaine. Cependant, il est peu question de savoir si les espèces plantées seront résistantes au changement climatique. Nous avons évalué la répartition de l'habitat climatiquement approprié, maintenant et à l'avenir, pour 176 espèces d'arbres originaires d'Australie, couramment plantées dans les zones urbaines importantes (SUA) de l'Australie et actuellement cultivées par des pépinières commerciales. D'ici 2070, l'habitat convenant au climat dans les ZUE devrait décliner pour 73% des espèces évaluées. Pour 18% de ces espèces, la superficie convenant au climat devrait être divisée par plus de moitié, par rapport à leur étendue de référence. En règle générale, pour les zones urbaines des régions plus froides, l'habitat climatiquement convenable devrait augmenter. En revanche, pour les zones urbaines des régions plus chaudes, une plus grande proportion d'espèces d'arbres peut perdre un habitat climatiquement convenable. Nos résultats mettent en évidence l'évolution des modèles d'espace climatique urbain pour les espèces couramment plantées, suggérant que les gouvernements locaux et l'industrie horticole devraient adopter une approche proactive pour identifier de nouvelles espèces prêtes pour le climat pour les plantations urbaines. – guatemalt
FORESTS 17/03/20 Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment. The Earth has entered the Anthropocene epoch and forest managers are facing unprecedented challenges to meet multiple ecosystem service demands from forests. Understanding the complex forest-water relations under a changing environment must add a human dimension, and this is essential in the move towards sustainable forest management in the 21st century. This Special Issue contains 10 papers presented at a joint international forest and water conference in Chile in 2018.
These studies provide global examples on new advancements in sciences in forest ecohydrology, watershed management, and ecosystem service assessment under various geographical and socioeconomic settings. View Full-Text. FORESTS 09/03/20 Optimized Maxent Model Predictions of Climate Change Impacts on the Suitable Distribution of Cunninghamia lanceolata in China. Climate change significantly influences changes in ecological phenomena and processes, such as species distribution and phenology, thus accelerating the rate of species extinction or prosperity. Climate change is considered to be one of the most important threats to global biodiversity in the 21st century and will pose significant challenges to biodiversity conservation in the future. The use of niche modelling to predict changes in the suitable distribution of species under climate change scenarios is becoming a hot topic of biological conservation. In this study, we use data from China’s National Forest Continuous Inventory as well as specimen collection data of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.)
Hook to run optimized Maxent models to predict potential suitable distribution of the species in the present day, 2050s, and 2070s under different climate change scenarios in China. ►▼ Show Figures. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004180/2019 European Green Deal and EU measures to protect forests and preserve biodiversity: the specific case of Romanian forests. FORESTS 10/02/20 Global Warming Mitigating Role of Wood Products from Washington State’s Private Forests. Similar to standing trees in the forests, wood products play an important role in enhancing the global sequestered carbon pool, by retaining the atmospheric carbon in a sequestered form for the duration of the functional life of the wood products. This study uses a temporal radiative forcing analysis along with the functional half-life of different wood products to evaluate the impacts of wood products on global warming, including carbon storage and life cycle greenhouse gas production/extraction emissions.
The methodology is applied to Washington State’s aboveground biomass and timber harvest data, and to the State’s comprehensive wood products mix. A moderate harvest rate simulation within Washington Biomass Calculator is used to estimate state harvest level, and statewide wood products manufacturing data is used for developing wood product mix estimates. CLIMATE 01/06/19 The Evolution of Climate Changes in Portugal: Determination of Trend Series and Its Impact on Forest Development. 1. Introduction The study of the climate is a complex field of investigation presently in great evolution, mainly due to the number of factors that can intervene in it, such as temperature, precipitation, sea currents and solar radiation, among others. These factors interact directly with the energy balance of the planet, provoking variations in different time scales, e.g. from tens to thousands or even millions of years, which make Earth’s climate never static [1,2,3].
FOREST ENTOMOLOGY 30/04/18 Forest Insects and Climate Change. There is general consensus among scientists that the global climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, with many regions experiencing warming trends, frequent high temperature extremes, and shifts in precipitation patterns [1••]. An increase of 0.61 °C in global mean temperature recorded since the beginning of the twentieth century (i.e., comparing the years 1850–1900 and 1986–2005, 5–95% CI is 0.55–0.67 °C) [1, 2], and the predicted warming of 2–6 °C by 2100  have direly increased the need to understand the impacts of climate change.
COST - JUIN 2018 - Climate Change and Forest Systems - New horizons for research and innovation. FORESTS 21/01/20 Adaptation of Forest Trees to Rapidly Changing Climate. Climate change leads to global drought-induced stress and increased plant mortality. Tree species living in rapidly changing climate conditions are exposed to danger and must adapt to new climate conditions to survive. Trees respond to changes in the environment in numerous ways. Physiological modulation at the seed stage, germination strategy and further development are influenced by many different factors. We review forest abiotic threats (such as drought and heat), including biochemical responses of plants to stress, and biotic threats (pathogens and insects) related to global warming. ►▼ Show Figures Graphical abstract This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Socio-economic and Eco-biological Dimensions in Resource use and Conservation 28/01/20 Role of Major Forest Biomes in Climate Change Mitigation: An Eco-Biological Perspective. FORESTS, TREES AND AGROFORESTRY 09/12/19 New methodology assesses vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people to climate change. Climate change is having a serious impact on many forests worldwide, along with the people who depend on them to thrive. Determining the extent of that impact is an indispensable first step to addressing this challenge. The CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), in collaboration with FAO Forestry has launched a new methodology for assessing the vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people to climate change. The single, common approach, or framework methodology, was unveiled at the Side Event “Social and environmental justice as a trigger of robust ambitious climate action and prosperous future for all” organized on the 7th of December [see presentation here], during the UN Climate Change Conference COP 25 (2 – 13 December 2019) in Madrid, and is contained in a new book published as part of the FAO Forestry Paper series: Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people – A framework methodology, downloadable here.
FAO - 2019 - Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people - A framework methodology. RTI PRESS POLICY BRIEF - AOUT 2017 - Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in the US Forest Sector. FOREST ECOSYSTEMS 12/05/15 Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change. The core of the forest simulation framework WaldPlaner 2.1 (Hansen and Nagel 2014) is a site-sensitive single tree growth model. The growth model consists of statistical functions basically describing tree height development, diameter growth and changes in crown dimensions. INTECH 30/03/16 Native Forest and Climate Change — The Role of the Subtropical Forest, Potentials, and Threats. INTECH 16/03/18 Advances in the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on the Forest Landscape. FORESTS 15/11/19 Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Forest Management: The Case of the U.S. Forest Service.
FORESTS 11/11/19 Forest Phenology Dynamics to Climate Change and Topography in a Geographic and Climate Transition Zone: The Qinling Mountains in Central China. FORESTS 24/10/19 Understanding the Critical Impact Path on Vegetation Growth under Climate Extremes and Human Influence. MICROORGANISMS 05/10/19 Reduced Virulence of an Introduced Forest Pathogen over 50 Years. GEOSCIENCES 23/09/19 Spectral Index-Based Monitoring (2000–2017) in Lowland Forests to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change (Hongrie) VTDIGGER 19/09/19 Climate change: Farmers and foresters confront new pests, fear the ‘next thing’ FORESTS 17/09/19 Spatial Pattern of Climate Change Effects on Lithuanian Forestry. FORESTS 20/08/19 Spatiotemporal Simulation of Net Ecosystem Productivity and Its Response to Climate Change in Subtropical Forests.
FORESTS 24/07/19 Forest Decline Triggered by Phloem Parasitism-Related Biotic Factors in Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) FORESTS 24/07/19 Interactions between Climate and Nutrient Cycles on Forest Response to Global Change: The Role of Mixed Forests. FORESTS 24/07/19 Effects of Climate Change on Burn Probability of Forests in Daxing’anling.
FORESTS 25/07/19 High Resolution Maps of Climatological Parameters for Analyzing the Impacts of Climatic Changes on Swiss Forests. FORESTS 14/06/19 Effects of Climate Change at Treeline: Lessons from Space-for-Time Studies, Manipulative Experiments, and Long-Term Observational Records in the Central Austrian Alps. FAPESP_BR 18/06/19 Climate change could affect symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and trees. FORESTS 11/06/19 Potential Distribution Shifts of Plant Species under Climate Change in Changbai Mountains, China. TRUTHOUT 07/04/19 Logging Is the Leading Driver of Carbon Emissions From US Forests. FORESTS 07/04/19 Comparative Assessment of Vegetation Dynamics under the Influence of Climate Change and Human Activities in Five Ecologically Vulnerable Regions of China from 2000 to 2015.
FORESTS 02/04/19 Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on Tree Species of the Eastern US: Results of DISTRIB-II Modeling. FORESTS 22/03/19 Visualizing Current and Future Climate Boundaries of the Conterminous United States: Implications for Forests. ESA JOURNAL - DEC 2013 - Climatic turning point for beech and oak under climate change in Central Europe. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 04/07/17 Risk of genetic maladaptation due to climate change in three major European tree species. FORESTS 20/11/18 Refining Species Traits in a Dynamic Vegetation Model to Project the Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Trees in Central Africa. FORESTRY COMMISSION - 2005 - Climate Change and British Woodland. FORESTS 19/06/18 Emerging Forest Diseases: A Case Study of Greenheart (Chlorocardium spp., Lauraceae) and the Newly Described Fungus, Xylaria karyophthora.
ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA - 2018 - Entomophaga aulicae (Reichardt in Bail) Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), a New Entomopathogenic Fungus in the Republic of Serbia. Climatic Change January 2018, Volume 146, Vulnerability of forests of the Midwest and Northeast United States to climate change. EFIMED 30/06/17 Emergent pests and diseases in forest systems. WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY 24/05/17 Dutch tree sends tweets about climate change. FORESTS 09/12/17 Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery.
FORESTS 09/12/17 Adaptation to Climate Change in Forestry: A Perspective on Forest Ownership and Adaptation Responses. FORESTS 06/12/17 By 2050 the Mitigation Effects of EU Forests Could Nearly Double through Climate Smart Forestry. FORESTS 24/11/17 Impacts of Global Change on Mediterranean Forests and Their Services. CGIAR - 2016 - Gender and Forests: Climate Change, Tenure, Value Chains and Emerging Issues. FORESTS 30/08/17 Integrating Climate Change and Land Use Impacts to Explore Forest Conservation Policy.
USDA - DEC 2011 - A Risk Assessment of Climate Change and the Impact of Forest Diseases on Forest Ecosystems in the Western United States and Canada. JOURNAL OF FOREST SCIENCE, 57, 2011 (10): 422–431 Expected impacts of climate change on forests: Czech Republic as a case study. Lesnícky časopis. Roč. 53, č. 3 (2007), IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVAKIA – GENERAL OVERVIEW. Atti Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia Anno LXIII, 2015: 145-150 DRIVERS AND PATHWAYS OF FOREST INSECT INVASIONS IN EUROPE, CAN WE PREDICT THE NEXT ARRIVALS? FORESTS 04/05/16 The Speed of Invasion: Rates of Spread for Thirteen Exotic Forest Insects and Diseases. FS_FED_US - 2013 - AN OVERVIEW OF SOME CONCEPTS, POTENTIALS, ISSUES, AND REALITIES OF ASSISTED MIGRATION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN FORESTS.
Mathematical and Computational Forestry&Natural-Resource Sciences 30/09/13 QUANTITATIVE METRICS FOR ASSESSING PREDICTED CLIMATE CHANGE PRESSURE ON NORTH AMERICAN TREE SPECIES. Forest Research Papers - DEC 2013 - The effect of temperature and humidity changes on insects development their impact on forest ecosystems in the expected climate change. MITIG ADAPT STRATEG GLOB CHANGE - 2008 - Climate change adaptation and regional forest planning in southern Yukon, Canada. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research Volume 31, Issue 1, 2016 The potential effect of climate change on the geographical distribution of insect pest species in the Swedish boreal forest. Regional Environmental Change. 08/2015; Institutional factors and opportunities for adapting European forest management to climate change. PLOS 13/08/14 Predicted Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation and Climate Change on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY 17/11/15 Climate change projections along with expanding invasive pest ranges pose a serious threat to forest. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT - 2014 - Climate change and European forests: What do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management? GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 29/10/15 Model-specification uncertainty in future forest pest outbreak. Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Jun;20(6):1723-37. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.
Global Change and Forest Health - IUFRO ALL DIVISION 7 Conference April 25-29, 2016 - ISTANBUL. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT - 2015 - Which tree species and biome types are most vulnerable to climate change in the US Northern Rocky Mountains? Forest Ecology and Management Available online 1 September 2015 Forest managers’ response to climate change science: Evaluating the constructs of boundary objects and organizations. Forest Ecology and Management Volume 344, 15 May 2015, Tree dieback affects climate change mitigation potential of a dry afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia.
EXTENSION_ORG 06/03/15 Climate Change Impacts on Forest Insects. Environmental Reviews. 12/2013; Anticipating the consequences of climate change for Canada’s boreal forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 25(1), 2015, pp. 226–242 A new model to simulate climate-change impacts on forest succession for local land management. CGIAR 15/12/14 What have we learned about governing agricultural and forest areas to achieve climate change mitigation? CAN. J. PLANT PATHOL. - 2007 - Simulating the effects of a climate-change scenario on the geographical range and activity of forest-pathogenic fungi.
Braz. J. Biol. - 2015 - Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests. Annals of Forest Science (2014) 71:291–300 Is the private forest sector adapting to climate change? A study of forest managers in north Wales. Advances in Climate Change Research Volume 4, Issue 4, 25 December 2013, Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China.
The Open Geography Journal, 2010, 3, 91-102 91 Impact of Target Diameter Harvesting on Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Drought Risk in Forest Ecosystems Under Climate Change Conditions. NORTH CASCADIA - 2011 - U.S. NATIONAL FORESTS ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH SCIENCE-MANAGEMENT PARTNERSHIPS. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (University of Pretoria) 30/11/11 Global change and tree diseases : New threats and new strategies. US FOREST SERVICE - MARS 2013 - GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORESTS. Northern Arizona University - MAI 2013 - Thèse en ligne : ESTIMATING AQUIFER RESPONSE FOLLOWING FOREST RESTORATION AND CLIMATE C. THE FOREST CHRONICLE - JUILLET 2010 - Forest health and climate change: A British Columbia perspective. WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY 05/09/13 Tropical forests and climate change: filling knowledge gaps in a different way.