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PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004557/2021 Vaccines containing metal contaminants. PATHOGENS 19/08/21 Potential for Developing Plant-Derived Candidate Vaccines and Biologics against Emerging Coronavirus Infections. All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license.

PATHOGENS 19/08/21 Potential for Developing Plant-Derived Candidate Vaccines and Biologics against Emerging Coronavirus Infections

No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited. Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication. The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature.

ERR_EE 15/07/21 0.13 percent of fully vaccinated people diagnosed with coronavirus. The Health Board (Terviseamet) told ERR that the number of infections, serious illnesses and deaths has decreased after vaccination.

ERR_EE 15/07/21 0.13 percent of fully vaccinated people diagnosed with coronavirus

The agency said as of the beginning of this week, there were a total of 657 people infected with the coronavirus among those who had been fully vaccinated. 492,660 people had completed the vaccination cycle at the beginning of the week. Thus, the proportion of infected is 0.13 percent. When looking at the infection by different vaccines, it was found that the infection rate of all manufacturers' individual injections was less than 0.2 percent. 0.18 percent of those receiving Pfizer/BioNTech, 0.08 percent of those receiving AstraZeneca, 0.02 percent of those vaccinated with Moderna, and 0.03 percent of those with Janssen. 0.02 percent of vaccinated have needed hospital treatment "There have still been hospitalizations for vaccinated people, but thanks to the vaccine, the course of the virus has been milder," Merilin Vernik, the agency's media adviser, said.

NLTIMES_NL 03/07/21 Current Covid-19 hospital patients almost exclusively unvaccinated. INEWS_CO _UK 07/06/21 Only 2% of hospital patients with Delta variant are fully vaccinated, new figures show. Just 2 per cent of people admitted to hospital with the Delta variant have had both doses of a coronavirus vaccine in the clearest sign yet that the jabs are breaking the link between infections and serious disease.

INEWS_CO _UK 07/06/21 Only 2% of hospital patients with Delta variant are fully vaccinated, new figures show

Health Secretary Matt Hancock told the Commons it was “still too early” to decide whether the final stage of the roadmap will go ahead on 21 June, but said the previously “rock solid” connection that sent people to hospital had been severely weakened by the vaccines. Figures up to 3 June showed that out of 12,383 cases in England of the Delta variant B1617.2, first identified in India, 464 people turned up at A&E and 126 were admitted to hospital. Of these 126 people, just three – or 2 per cent – had received two doses of a vaccine. Two thirds of those admitted to hospital, 83 people, were unvaccinated, while 28 had received one dose. During the first and second waves, 3.5 per cent of people infected with coronavirus needed hospitalisation.

INDEPENDENT_IE 24/07/21 Explainer: Why fully vaccinated people are in hospital and other questions triggered by Delta virus. Who is in hospital with Covid-19 now?

INDEPENDENT_IE 24/07/21 Explainer: Why fully vaccinated people are in hospital and other questions triggered by Delta virus

And why are fully vaccinated people among the patients? Hese are some of the questions exercising us as we learn more about what it is to gradually start living with the virus. The purists are calling this the Delta or fourth wave. Optimists have christened it the exit wave. The problem is we still don’t know how long or painful the goodbye will be. SCIENCEMAG 30/04/21 Is Russia’s COVID-19 vaccine safe? Brazil’s veto of Sputnik V sparks lawsuit threat and confusion.

Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation.

SCIENCEMAG 30/04/21 Is Russia’s COVID-19 vaccine safe? Brazil’s veto of Sputnik V sparks lawsuit threat and confusion

A confusing and unusually nasty fight broke out this week over the safety of a Russian COVID-19 vaccine known as Sputnik V after a Brazilian health agency declined on Monday to authorize its import because of quality and safety concerns. The stakes escalated yesterday when the Twitter account officially associated with the vaccine said “Sputnik V is undertaking a legal defamation proceeding” against Brazil’s regulators. In an online press conference several hours later, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) defended its decision, maintaining that documentation from some of the Russian facilities making Sputnik V shows that one of its two doses contains adenoviruses capable of replication, a potential danger to vaccine recipients. The vaccine uses two different adenoviruses, which cause the common cold, to deliver the gene for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVD-19.

NATURE 12/04/21 Vaccine development for emerging infectious diseases. BIORXIV 28/07/20 Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 as vaccine candidate. PATHOGENS 29/07/20 Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for SARS-CoV-2. MDPI and ACS Style Shirvani, E.; Samal, S.K.

PATHOGENS 29/07/20 Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for SARS-CoV-2

Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for SARS-CoV-2. Pathogens 2020, 9, 619. AMA Style Shirvani E, Samal SK. Chicago/Turabian Style Shirvani, Edris; Samal, Siba K. 2020. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004584/2020 COVID-19 vaccine. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001875/2020 Stepping up of lending mechanisms for companies involved in coronavirus vaccine research. ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY 13/03/20 Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines. Several coronaviruses (CoV) are widespread in humans and cause only mild upper respiratory infections and colds; however, pandemic outbreaks of more severe coronavirus infections in humans have become more prevalent.

ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY 13/03/20 Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (betaCoV Lineage B) caused the first pandemic of the 21st century in 2002–2003, with its epicentre in China. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (betaCoV Lineage C) emerged almost a decade later and infections continue in the Middle East. Now, only 7 years after MERS, the COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 (betaCoV Lineage B) has emerged, again in China, as an even more devastating pandemic.

To date we have a limited arsenal to combat these deadly infections, with no approved treatments or vaccines for any of these severe CoV diseases, including COVID-19. NATURE 13/05/20 Anti-vaccine movement could undermine efforts to end coronavirus pandemic, researchers warn. As scientists work to create a vaccine against COVID-19, a small but fervent anti-vaccination movement is marshalling against it.

NATURE 13/05/20 Anti-vaccine movement could undermine efforts to end coronavirus pandemic, researchers warn

Campaigners are seeding outlandish narratives: they falsely say that coronavirus vaccines will be used to implant microchips into people, for instance, and falsely claim that a woman who took part in a UK vaccine trial died. In April, some carried placards with anti-vaccine slogans at rallies in California to protest against the lockdown. Last week, a now-deleted YouTube video promoting wild conspiracy theories about the pandemic and asserting (without evidence) that vaccines would “kill millions” received more than 8 million views. JAMA 11/05/20 Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State. Key Points Question Among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is there an association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and in-hospital mortality?

JAMA 11/05/20 Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State

Findings In a retrospective cohort study of 1438 patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York, compared with treatment with neither drug, the adjusted hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality for treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone was 1.08, for azithromycin alone was 0.56, and for combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was 1.35. None of these hazard ratios were statistically significant.

EUREKALERT 11/05/20 Fred Hutch, NIH experts outline plan for COVID-19 vaccines. SEATTLE -- May 11, 2020 -- Unprecedented collaboration and resources will be required to research and develop safe and effective vaccines for COVID-19 that can be manufactured and delivered in the scale of billions of doses to people globally.

EUREKALERT 11/05/20 Fred Hutch, NIH experts outline plan for COVID-19 vaccines

Vaccine development often takes years. To speed up the process, Dr. Larry Corey of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and experts at the National Institutes of Health outline a vision to create a coordinated and efficient approach to creating COVID-19 vaccines. In a perspective published online May 11 by the journal Science, Corey and coauthors Dr. Anthony Fauci, Dr. "We're experiencing a series of unprecedented events with a disease that has spread globally and infected more people in a shorter time than any other infection in modern times," said Corey, past president and director of Fred Hutch and a professor in its Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division.

WIKIPEDIA - COVID-19 vaccine. Hypothetical vaccine against COVID-19 A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Although no vaccine has completed clinical trials, there are multiple attempts in progress to develop such a vaccine. By May, 159 vaccine candidates were in development, with five having been initiated in Phase I–II safety and efficacy studies in human subjects, and seven in Phase I trials.[6][7]

THEGUARDIAN 24/01/20 Lessons from Sars outbreak help in race for coronavirus vaccine. There are no vaccines or treatments approved for the new coronavirus, but the race is on to develop one. This week the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (Cepi) announced it would commit $11m (£8.4m) to three programmes led by the companies Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna and the University of Queensland. Cepi, which is funded by several countries and philanthropic donors, was set up three years ago in the wake of the Ebola epidemic, which killed 11,000 people. Despite an Ebola vaccine (later shown to be almost 100% effective) having been in development for a decade, it was not deployed until more than a year into the epidemic. This time the aim is to have a viable vaccine in production within as little as 16 weeks – although testing for safety and efficacy will take longer. One advantage is that the new coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, belongs to the same family as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars), for which a vaccine was developed following the 2002 outbreak.

SKY NEWS 22/04/20 Coronavirus: Scientists in China find 33 mutations of virus in warning to vaccine developers. Yahoo is part of Verizon Media. Verizon Media and our partners need your consent to access your device and use your data (including location) to understand your interests, and provide and measure personalised ads. Verizon Media will also provide you with personalised ads on partner products. Learn more. To give you a better overall experience, we want to provide relevant ads that are more useful to you. For example, when you search for a film, we use your search information and location to show the most relevant cinemas near you. Learn more about how Verizon Media collects and uses data and how our partners collect and use data. Select 'OK' to continue and to allow Verizon Media and our partners to use your data, or select 'Manage options' to view your choices.

SCIENCEMAG 23/04/20 COVID-19 vaccine protects monkeys from new coronavirus, Chinese biotech reports. Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center. For the first time, one of the many COVID-19 vaccines in development has protected an animal, rhesus macaques, from infection by the new coronavirus, scientists report. The vaccine, an old-fashioned formulation consisting of a chemically inactivated version of the virus, produced no obvious side effects in the monkeys, and human trials began on 16 April. Researchers from Sinovac Biotech, a privately held Beijing-based company, gave two different doses of their COVID-19 vaccine to a total of eight rhesus macaques. Three weeks later, the group introduced SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, into the monkeys’ lungs through tubes down their tracheas, and none developed a full-blown infection.

REPLICATING VACCINES 29/09/10 Recombinant Live Vaccines to Protect Against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Live attenuated viruses have generally proven to be the most effective vaccines against viral infections. The production of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines for animal CoVs has not been satisfactory, largely because vaccine strains are insufficiently immunogenic and, in addition, may recombine, resulting in novel viruses with increased virulence [73, 74, 75]. Several groups, including ours, have described modifications to the SARS-CoV that are attenuating. PREPRINTS 29/02/20 Potential for Developing a SARS-CoV Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) Recombinant Protein as a Heterologous Human Vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19.

PLOS 08/08/12 Immunization with SARS Coronavirus Vaccines Leads to Pulmonary Immunopathology on Challenge with the SARS Virus. NATURE 30/04/20 Scores of coronavirus vaccines are in competition — how will scientists choose the best? Less than five months after the world first learnt about the new coronavirus causing fatal pneumonia in Wuhan, China, there are more than 90 vaccines for the virus at various stages of development, with more announced each week. NATURE 20/10/18 Evaluation of a recombination-resistant coronavirus as a broadly applicable, rapidly implementable vaccine platform. Live-attenuated vaccines remain key players in reducing the global disease burden associated with viral infections in humans, critically important livestock, and companion animals.

Historically and contemporarily, live-attenuated vaccines have been used with success to help control measles, mumps, rubella, polio, yellow fever, and chickenpox infections and outbreaks1,21,22. NATURE 09/04/20 If a coronavirus vaccine arrives, can the world make enough? As the world searches for a way to end the coronavirus pandemic, the race is on to find and produce a vaccine. Some optimistic forecasts suggest that one could be available in 12–18 months — but researchers are already warning that it might not be physically possible to make enough vaccine for everyone, and that rich countries might hoard supplies.

The production facilities needed will depend on which kind of vaccine turns out to work best. MDPI 14/04/20 What Does Plant-Based Vaccine Technology Offer to the Fight against COVID-19? The emergence of new pathogenic viral strains is a constant threat to global health, with the new coronavirus strain COVID-19 as the latest example. Infectious Diseases and Therapy 23/04/20 Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2: Lessons from Other Coronavirus Strains. HARVARD_EDU - 2020 - Ethical comparators in Coronavirus vaccine trials. GATESNOTES 30/04/20 What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine. One of the questions I get asked the most these days is when the world will be able to go back to the way things were in December before the coronavirus pandemic. My answer is always the same: when we have an almost perfect drug to treat COVID-19, or when almost every person on the planet has been vaccinated against coronavirus.

The former is unlikely to happen anytime soon. We’d need a miracle treatment that was at least 95 percent effective to stop the outbreak. Most of the drug candidates right now are nowhere near that powerful. They could save a lot of lives, but they aren’t enough to get us back to normal. FRONT. MICROBIOL. 02/08/19 Recent Advances in the Vaccine Development Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus. FAPESP 18/03/20 Brazilian scientists are developing a vaccine against the new coronavirus. COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY 06/05/20 Poxviruses could yield protein pathways for coronavirus vaccine. CNBC 07/05/20 Moderna shares surge after FDA approves coronavirus vaccine for phase 2 trial. BUSINESS INSIDER 07/05/20 Experts predict chaos and crime during coronavirus vaccine rollout. BIORXIV 21/03/20 COVID-19 coronavirus vaccine design using reverse vaccinology and machine learning. BBC 27/04/20 Coronavirus: How India will play a major role in a Covid-19 vaccine.

BBC 23/04/20 Coronavirus: First patients injected in UK vaccine trial.