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PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-004584/2020 COVID-19 vaccine. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001875/2020 Stepping up of lending mechanisms for companies involved in coronavirus vaccine research. ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY 13/03/20 Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines. Several coronaviruses (CoV) are widespread in humans and cause only mild upper respiratory infections and colds; however, pandemic outbreaks of more severe coronavirus infections in humans have become more prevalent.

ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY 13/03/20 Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives, Prospects, and Challenges Based on Candidate SARS, MERS, and Animal Coronavirus Vaccines

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (betaCoV Lineage B) caused the first pandemic of the 21st century in 2002–2003, with its epicentre in China. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (betaCoV Lineage C) emerged almost a decade later and infections continue in the Middle East. NATURE 13/05/20 Anti-vaccine movement could undermine efforts to end coronavirus pandemic, researchers warn. As scientists work to create a vaccine against COVID-19, a small but fervent anti-vaccination movement is marshalling against it.

NATURE 13/05/20 Anti-vaccine movement could undermine efforts to end coronavirus pandemic, researchers warn

Campaigners are seeding outlandish narratives: they falsely say that coronavirus vaccines will be used to implant microchips into people, for instance, and falsely claim that a woman who took part in a UK vaccine trial died. In April, some carried placards with anti-vaccine slogans at rallies in California to protest against the lockdown.

Last week, a now-deleted YouTube video promoting wild conspiracy theories about the pandemic and asserting (without evidence) that vaccines would “kill millions” received more than 8 million views. JAMA 11/05/20 Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State. Key Points Question Among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is there an association between use of hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, and in-hospital mortality?

JAMA 11/05/20 Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State

Findings In a retrospective cohort study of 1438 patients hospitalized in metropolitan New York, compared with treatment with neither drug, the adjusted hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality for treatment with hydroxychloroquine alone was 1.08, for azithromycin alone was 0.56, and for combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was 1.35. None of these hazard ratios were statistically significant. EUREKALERT 11/05/20 Fred Hutch, NIH experts outline plan for COVID-19 vaccines. SEATTLE -- May 11, 2020 -- Unprecedented collaboration and resources will be required to research and develop safe and effective vaccines for COVID-19 that can be manufactured and delivered in the scale of billions of doses to people globally.

EUREKALERT 11/05/20 Fred Hutch, NIH experts outline plan for COVID-19 vaccines

Vaccine development often takes years. To speed up the process, Dr. Larry Corey of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and experts at the National Institutes of Health outline a vision to create a coordinated and efficient approach to creating COVID-19 vaccines. In a perspective published online May 11 by the journal Science, Corey and coauthors Dr. Anthony Fauci, Dr. "We're experiencing a series of unprecedented events with a disease that has spread globally and infected more people in a shorter time than any other infection in modern times," said Corey, past president and director of Fred Hutch and a professor in its Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division.

Media Contact: Molly McElroy 206.667.2210 mwmcelro@fredhutch.org. WIKIPEDIA - COVID-19 vaccine. Hypothetical vaccine against COVID-19 A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

WIKIPEDIA - COVID-19 vaccine.

Although no vaccine has completed clinical trials, there are multiple attempts in progress to develop such a vaccine. By May, 159 vaccine candidates were in development, with five having been initiated in Phase I–II safety and efficacy studies in human subjects, and seven in Phase I trials.[6][7] THEGUARDIAN 24/01/20 Lessons from Sars outbreak help in race for coronavirus vaccine. There are no vaccines or treatments approved for the new coronavirus, but the race is on to develop one.

THEGUARDIAN 24/01/20 Lessons from Sars outbreak help in race for coronavirus vaccine

This week the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (Cepi) announced it would commit $11m (£8.4m) to three programmes led by the companies Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna and the University of Queensland. Cepi, which is funded by several countries and philanthropic donors, was set up three years ago in the wake of the Ebola epidemic, which killed 11,000 people. Despite an Ebola vaccine (later shown to be almost 100% effective) having been in development for a decade, it was not deployed until more than a year into the epidemic. This time the aim is to have a viable vaccine in production within as little as 16 weeks – although testing for safety and efficacy will take longer.

One advantage is that the new coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, belongs to the same family as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars), for which a vaccine was developed following the 2002 outbreak. SKY NEWS 22/04/20 Coronavirus: Scientists in China find 33 mutations of virus in warning to vaccine developers. Yahoo is part of Verizon Media.

SKY NEWS 22/04/20 Coronavirus: Scientists in China find 33 mutations of virus in warning to vaccine developers

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For example, when you search for a film, we use your search information and location to show the most relevant cinemas near you. Learn more about how Verizon Media collects and uses data and how our partners collect and use data. SCIENCEMAG 23/04/20 COVID-19 vaccine protects monkeys from new coronavirus, Chinese biotech reports. Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center.

SCIENCEMAG 23/04/20 COVID-19 vaccine protects monkeys from new coronavirus, Chinese biotech reports

For the first time, one of the many COVID-19 vaccines in development has protected an animal, rhesus macaques, from infection by the new coronavirus, scientists report. The vaccine, an old-fashioned formulation consisting of a chemically inactivated version of the virus, produced no obvious side effects in the monkeys, and human trials began on 16 April. Researchers from Sinovac Biotech, a privately held Beijing-based company, gave two different doses of their COVID-19 vaccine to a total of eight rhesus macaques. Three weeks later, the group introduced SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, into the monkeys’ lungs through tubes down their tracheas, and none developed a full-blown infection. Related. REPLICATING VACCINES 29/09/10 Recombinant Live Vaccines to Protect Against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Live attenuated viruses have generally proven to be the most effective vaccines against viral infections.

REPLICATING VACCINES 29/09/10 Recombinant Live Vaccines to Protect Against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

The production of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines for animal CoVs has not been satisfactory, largely because vaccine strains are insufficiently immunogenic and, in addition, may recombine, resulting in novel viruses with increased virulence [73, 74, 75]. Several groups, including ours, have described modifications to the SARS-CoV that are attenuating. These “domesticated” viruses may be useful platforms to develop inactivated or live vaccines. In general, for RNA viruses, it is essential to develop a reverse genetic system to develop a virus with an attenuated phenotype. This is certainly the case for coronaviruses that have the largest genome known (around 30 kb) for an RNA virus, increasing the technical difficulty of generating an infectious cDNA.

PREPRINTS 29/02/20 Potential for Developing a SARS-CoV Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) Recombinant Protein as a Heterologous Human Vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19. Working PaperBrief ReportVersion 2This version is not peer-reviewed Version 1 : Received: 25 February 2020 / Approved: 29 February 2020 / Online: 29 February 2020 (03:20:37 CET) Version 2 : Received: 2 March 2020 / Approved: 4 March 2020 / Online: 4 March 2020 (05:19:16 CET) A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

PREPRINTS 29/02/20 Potential for Developing a SARS-CoV Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) Recombinant Protein as a Heterologous Human Vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19

Journal reference: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2020DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1740560. PLOS 08/08/12 Immunization with SARS Coronavirus Vaccines Leads to Pulmonary Immunopathology on Challenge with the SARS Virus. Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in China in 2002 and spread to other countries before brought under control. Because of a concern for reemergence or a deliberate release of the SARS coronavirus, vaccine development was initiated. Evaluations of an inactivated whole virus vaccine in ferrets and nonhuman primates and a virus-like-particle vaccine in mice induced protection against infection but challenged animals exhibited an immunopathologic-type lung disease.

Design Four candidate vaccines for humans with or without alum adjuvant were evaluated in a mouse model of SARS, a VLP vaccine, the vaccine given to ferrets and NHP, another whole virus vaccine and an rDNA-produced S protein. Results All vaccines induced serum neutralizing antibody with increasing dosages and/or alum significantly increasing responses. NATURE 30/04/20 Scores of coronavirus vaccines are in competition — how will scientists choose the best? Less than five months after the world first learnt about the new coronavirus causing fatal pneumonia in Wuhan, China, there are more than 90 vaccines for the virus at various stages of development, with more announced each week. At least six are already being tested for safety in people. Now, developers, funders and other stakeholders are laying the groundwork for their biggest challenge yet: determining which vaccines actually work.

This typically involves giving thousands or tens of thousands of people a vaccine or placebo and seeing, over months or even years, whether there is a difference between the two groups in how many people get infected in the course of their daily lives, as well as checking that no safety issues emerge. But in this pandemic, scientists will have to accelerate and streamline that process. This month, the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, sketched out plans for a clinical trial that will test numerous vaccines in a single study. NATURE 20/10/18 Evaluation of a recombination-resistant coronavirus as a broadly applicable, rapidly implementable vaccine platform. Live-attenuated vaccines remain key players in reducing the global disease burden associated with viral infections in humans, critically important livestock, and companion animals.

Historically and contemporarily, live-attenuated vaccines have been used with success to help control measles, mumps, rubella, polio, yellow fever, and chickenpox infections and outbreaks1,21,22. However, live-attenuated vaccines are also associated with the risk of reversion by either mutation- or recombination-driven processes, which can cause dangerous outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, including animals22. For example, highly pathogenic porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains emerged in China in 2012, circumventing existing vaccines, and RNA recombination events between wild-type and live-attenuated PEDV and between avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains have seeded new outbreaks23,24,25,26.

NATURE 09/04/20 If a coronavirus vaccine arrives, can the world make enough? As the world searches for a way to end the coronavirus pandemic, the race is on to find and produce a vaccine. Some optimistic forecasts suggest that one could be available in 12–18 months — but researchers are already warning that it might not be physically possible to make enough vaccine for everyone, and that rich countries might hoard supplies. The production facilities needed will depend on which kind of vaccine turns out to work best. Some researchers say governments and private funders should give vaccine manufacturers money to ramp up their production capacity in advance, even if these facilities are never used. Although money has been pledged to help with this, the promises fall short of the billions of dollars that public-health experts say is needed. MDPI 14/04/20 What Does Plant-Based Vaccine Technology Offer to the Fight against COVID-19?

The emergence of new pathogenic viral strains is a constant threat to global health, with the new coronavirus strain COVID-19 as the latest example. COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has quickly spread around the globe. This pandemic demands rapid development of drugs and vaccines. Plant-based vaccines are a technology with proven viability, which have led to promising results for candidates evaluated at the clinical level, meaning this technology could contribute towards the fight against COVID-19. Infectious Diseases and Therapy 23/04/20 Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2: Lessons from Other Coronavirus Strains.

HARVARD_EDU - 2020 - Ethical comparators in Coronavirus vaccine trials. GATESNOTES 30/04/20 What you need to know about the COVID-19 vaccine. One of the questions I get asked the most these days is when the world will be able to go back to the way things were in December before the coronavirus pandemic. My answer is always the same: when we have an almost perfect drug to treat COVID-19, or when almost every person on the planet has been vaccinated against coronavirus. The former is unlikely to happen anytime soon. We’d need a miracle treatment that was at least 95 percent effective to stop the outbreak. Most of the drug candidates right now are nowhere near that powerful. They could save a lot of lives, but they aren’t enough to get us back to normal.

FRONT. MICROBIOL. 02/08/19 Recent Advances in the Vaccine Development Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus. Introduction. FAPESP 18/03/20 Brazilian scientists are developing a vaccine against the new coronavirus. COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY 06/05/20 Poxviruses could yield protein pathways for coronavirus vaccine. CNBC 07/05/20 Moderna shares surge after FDA approves coronavirus vaccine for phase 2 trial. Shares of Moderna surged Thursday after it announced that the Food and Drug Administration cleared its coronavirus vaccine for a phase 2 trial, what the company called a “crucial step.”

Moderna said it will begin phase 2 trials with 600 participants shortly and is finalizing plans for a phase 3 trial as early as this summer. BUSINESS INSIDER 07/05/20 Experts predict chaos and crime during coronavirus vaccine rollout. BIORXIV 21/03/20 COVID-19 coronavirus vaccine design using reverse vaccinology and machine learning. BBC 27/04/20 Coronavirus: How India will play a major role in a Covid-19 vaccine. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said last fortnight that India and the US were working together to develop vaccines against the coronavirus. Mr Pompeo's remark didn't entirely come as a surprise.

The two countries have run an internationally recognised joint vaccine development programme for more than three decades. They have worked on stopping dengue, enteric diseases, influenza and TB in their tracks. Trials of a dengue vaccine are planned in the near future. India is among the largest manufacturer of generic drugs and vaccines in the world. Now half a dozen Indian firms are developing vaccines against the virus that causes Covid-19. One of them is Serum Institute of India, the world's largest vaccine maker by number of doses produced and sold globally. The company supplies some 20 vaccines to 165 countries. Image copyright kaliprasad. BBC 23/04/20 Coronavirus: First patients injected in UK vaccine trial. Media playback is unsupported on your device The first human trial in Europe of a coronavirus vaccine has begun in Oxford.

Two volunteers were injected, the first of more than 800 people recruited for the study.