FRONT. MAR. SCI. 05/10/20 Microplastic Pollution in Deep-Sea Sediments From the Great Australian Bight. Introduction Plastic pollution of the world’s oceans is an internationally recognized environmental issue (UNEP, 2018).
The extent of this pollution, and increasing understanding of its potential impacts, make it a matter of increasing public concern (Bonanno and Orlando-Bonaca, 2018). Millions of tonnes of plastic enter the marine environment annually, and quantities are expected to increase in coming years (Jambeck et al., 2015; Geyer et al., 2017; Lebreton and Andrady, 2019). Over time, plastic items in the marine environment can degrade or break down into smaller pieces predominantly through weathering and mechanical forces such as wave action and abrasion with sand (Thompson et al., 2004; Corcoran et al., 2009). Once a plastic item is between 5 mm and 1 μm, it is defined as microplastic (MP) (GESAMP, 2015). SCIENCE ADVANCES 05/06/20 Microfibers in oceanic surface waters: A global characterization.
Abstract Microfibers are ubiquitous contaminants of emerging concern.
Résumé traduit : La présence répandue de fibres naturelles dans les environnements marins souligne la nécessité d'identifier chimiquement les microfibres avant de les classer comme microplastiques. Nos résultats mettent en évidence un décalage considérable entre la production mondiale de fibres synthétiques et la composition actuelle des fibres marines, une constatation qui mérite clairement une plus grande attention. – guatemalt
Traditionally ascribed to the “microplastics” family, their widespread occurrence in the natural environment is commonly reported in plastic pollution studies, based on the assumption that fibers largely derive from wear and tear of synthetic textiles.
By compiling a global dataset from 916 seawater samples collected in six ocean basins, we show that although synthetic polymers currently account for two-thirds of global fiber production, oceanic fibers are mainly composed of natural polymers. µFT-IR characterization of ~2000 fibers revealed that only 8.2% of oceanic fibers are synthetic, with most being cellulosic (79.5%) or of animal origin (12.3%). The widespread occurrence of natural fibers throughout marine environments emphasizes the necessity of chemically identifying microfibers before classifying them as microplastics. Table 1Fiber concentrations. Table 2Fiber dimensions. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-003430/2019 Recovery of plastics at sea.
SCIENCE MEDIA CENTRE 29/11/19 Expert reaction to report on microplastics in freshwater and soil. November 29, 2019 A report, published by The Royal Society, reports on microplastics in freshwater and soil, and discusses the evidence and action required.
Prof Iseult Lynch, Chair of Environmental Nanoscience, University of Birmingham, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, said: THE ROYAL SOCIETY - NOV 2019 - Microplastics in freshwater and soil. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research - 2019 - Pollution due to Plastic Waste in Vietnam. September 25, 2019 Journal article Open Access Nguyen Minh Quyen; Phan Thi Thuy Hoa; Van Huong Dong WWF outlines four areas that are adversely affected by plastic waste: human health, the environment and marine life, climate change and air pollution, and ultimately quality of life and economy.
According to WWF, 270 species are directly affected by ocean plastic waste, of which, more than 240 species have plastic in the digestive system. Scientists once discovered a whale with 30 plastic bags in its gut. FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENC 26/04/18 Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana. Introduction Advances in plastic production have resulted in more versatile, lightweight, durable, and cheap plastics, which have become incorporated in every part of our day-to-day lives (Andrady and Neal, 2009).
Yet, plastic is now a ubiquitous, long lasting source of litter on the planet (Barnes et al., 2009). Since mass production of plastic began in the 1940's, annual production has increased from ~5 Mt in the 1950's to 322 Mt in 2015 (Plastics-the Facts, 2016). Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is used in the production of reusable bags and agricultural films, with its predominant use in the food packaging industry (Andrady, 2003; Plastics-the Facts, 2016). PACKAGINGINSIGHTS 22/08/19 Microplastics pose minimal health threat, but more effective studies are needed, stresses WHO. 22 Aug 2019 --- The long-awaited findings of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) assessment of microplastics in the environment have been published, with the organization indicating that the impact on human health appears to be minimal at current levels.
At the same time, WHO has stressed that it was working from “limited information” and that there is a pressing need to establish more standardized methods for measuring microplastic particles in water; more studies on the sources and occurrence of microplastics in freshwater; and the efficacy of different treatment processes. According to WHO’s analysis, which summarizes the latest knowledge on microplastics in drinking water, microplastics larger than 150 micrometers are not likely to be absorbed in the human body and uptake of smaller particles is expected to be limited.
The potential hazards associated with microplastics come in three forms: physical particles, chemicals and microbial pathogens as part of biofilms. By Joshua Poole. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-001754-19 Directive on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment. SCIENCEMEDIACENTRE 05/06/19 expert reaction to human consumption of microplastics.
June 5, 2019 Research published in Environmental Science & Technology demonstrates that in approximately 15% of Americans’ caloric intake, annual microplastics consumption ranges from 39000 to 52000 particles depending on age and sex.
Prof Richard Lampitt, leader of the Microplastic Research Team, National Oceanography Centre, said: “I think that the press release is largely well balanced and reflects the conclusions of the paper. Furthermore, I think the paper is a careful assessment of the data which has to date been published and that the conclusions are sound. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-000415-19 Common criteria and definition of waste and end-of-life plastic materials (high density polyethylene/polypropylene) in the plastic industry.
ONU ENVIRONNEMENT - 2017 - UNEP Frontiers: 2016 report: Emerging issues of environmental concern. Au sommaire notamment: Microplastics:Trouble in the Food Chain. ONU ENVIRONNEMENT 05/06/18 Explorer les possibilités d'adoption de matériaux alternatifs à l'utilisation du plastique afin de réduire les déchets marins. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-000533-19 Microplastics pollution in estuaries. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jan 15;612:1380-1386. Microplastic and mesoplastic contamination in canned sardines and sprats. Environmental Sciences Europe 18/04/18 Marine litter plastics and microplastics and their toxic chemicals components: the need for urgent preventive measures. Plastics in the ocean: sources, volumes, trends Plastic marine litter is a mixture of macromolecules (polymers)1 and chemicals, its size ranging from several metres to few nanometres.
It comprises such diverse items as fishing gear, agricultural plastics, bottles, bags, food packaging, taps, lids, straws, cigarette butts, industrial pellets, and cosmetic microbeads, and the fragmentation debris coming from the weathering of all of them. It has become ubiquitous in all marine compartments, occurring on beaches; on the seabed; within sediments; in the water column and floating on the sea surface. The quantity observed floating in the open ocean represents only a fraction of the total input: over two-thirds of plastic litter ends up on the seabed with half of the remainder washed up in beaches and the other half floating on or under the surface, so quantifying only floating plastic debris seriously underestimates the amounts of plastics in the oceans . PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-005585-18 Reducing the impact of certain plastic products on the environment. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005222-18 Reducing marine litter from disposable plastic in island regions.
SPRINGER 28/12/17 From Coral Triangle to Trash Triangle—How the Hot spot of Global Marine Biodiversity Is Threatened by Plastic Waste. INTECH - 2018 - Challenges and Treatment of Microplastics in Water. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 04/09/18 From Fish to Humans, A Microplastic Invasion May Be Taking a Toll. This is the second of a three-part series that examines our growing understanding of the scope and impacts of microplastics pollution.
Mark Browne had a suspicion. He hoped the samples of dried blood taken from a blue mussel and placed under a special microscope would tell him if he was correct. As a fuzzy, three-dimensional image of the mussel’s blood cells appeared, there they were, right in the middle—tiny specks of plastic. Whereas photos of sea turtles eating plastic bags have become the poster child of the environmental harm wrought by humanity’s plastic waste, research like Browne’s illustrates the scope of the problem is far larger than the trash we can see. Tiny pieces of degraded plastic, synthetic fibers and plastic beads, collectively called microplastics, have turned up in every corner of the planet—from Florida beach sands to Arctic sea ice, from farm fields to urban air.
The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) (European Commission, 2008) provides for the assessment of Marine Litter as one Descriptor of Good Environmental Status: Descriptor 10, properties and quantities of marine litter do not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment. Therefore, assessment of marine litter is a requirement for the 23 European Union Member States (EU MSs) involved in the implementation of the MSFD. Further, the United Nations identify Marine Litter as a factor in the Sustainable Development Goal 14 and the G7 countries have declared commitment to avoid and reduce marine litter, in particular plastics from land-based sources, during the G7 Ise-Shima Summit (26–27 May 2016). Riverine Litter Observation Network–The Approach Table 1. Figure 1. Front. Mar. Sci., 28 March 2017 Microplastics Generation: Onset of Fragmentation of Polyethylene Films in Marine Environment Mesocosms. Introduction Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured, or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine or coastal environment.
In general it consists of man-made items that have been deliberately discarded or unintentionally lost in the sea or on beaches, and it includes materials transported from land by rivers, draining or sewage systems, or winds (Cheshire et al., 2009). Globally, the annual input of marine debris in the marine environment has been estimated to be nearly 6.4 million tons (Gregory, 2009), while 103,247,609 items were collected between 1989 and 2007 in 12 marine regions worldwide (Cheshire et al., 2009). Considering the low degradation rates, the effects of accumulation can be observed on both marine life and the human well-being (Barnes et al., 2009). Accounting for almost 30% of the yearly demand for plastics in the European Union, Polyethylene is the most widely used type of plastic. Materials and Methods. Front. Mar. Sci., 31 March 2017 Using Numerical Model Simulations to Improve the Understanding of Micro-plastic Distribution and Pathways in the Marine Environment.
Introduction Pollution from marine plastic is a global issue of international concern. Marine litter comes from both land- and sea-based sources and can travel immense distances. Marine ecosystems worldwide are affected by human-made refuse, much of which is plastic (see Table 1 of Derraik, 2002). Resolving the biodiversity, environmental, economic, transport, navigation, and biological invasion hazards associated with anthropogenic litter in the marine environment requires a substantial, sustained integrated effort from individuals, industry, governments, and international governmental organizations at local to regional and global scales. The increase in global plastic production and the recent estimate of ~8 million metric tons of mismanaged plastic waste entering the ocean each year (Jambeck et al., 2015) points to the need to tackle the problem at a multitude of scales.
Front. Environ. Sci., 19 July 2017 Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource. Introduction In recent years, anthropogenic litter in the form of plastic debris has been documented in widespread and diverse marine (Law et al., 2010, 2014; Cózar et al., 2014; Fischer et al., 2015; van Sebille et al., 2015; Law, 2016), freshwater (Eriksen et al., 2013; Free et al., 2014; Mani et al., 2015; Baldwin et al., 2016; Mason et al., 2016), and even aeolian (Dris et al., 2015) biomes. It is estimated that 4.8–12.7 million tons of plastic enters the ocean in a single year (Jambeck et al., 2015), with a quarter of a million tons currently floating in the world's oceans (Eriksen et al., 2014). It is estimated that 70–80% of marine litter (most of which is plastic) originates from inland sources via rivers (GESAMP, 2010).
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - MAI 2017 - Thèse en ligne : Uptake and effects of microplastic particles in selected marine microalgae species; Oxyrrhis marina and Rhodomonas baltica. ADVANCES IN OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY - 2017 - Surfing and dining on the "plastisphere": microbial life on plastic marine debris. Sci Adv. 2017 Apr; 3(4): The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY LETTERS 05/06/17 Finding the missing piece of the aquatic plastic pollution puzzle: Interaction between primary producers and microplastics. Abstract. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-007854-17 Plastic pollution in nature.
EPA_ie - 2014 - Scope, Fate, Risks and Impacts of Microplastic Pollution in Irish Freshwater Systems. IFREMER - SEPT 2017 - Editorial: Plastic Pollution. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-003034-17 Plastic and microplastic pollution. A recent international study(1) has shown that, on average, 332 items of waste per square kilometre are floating in the Adriatic and Ionian seas.
The situation has deteriorated due to the geographical conditions of these seas, which are enclosed and have a densely populated coastline. This waste is harmful to the environment and for human health (releasing toxic substances into the food chain), for the ecosystem (waste is mistaken for food and consumed by marine fauna) and for the economy (cost of cleaning beaches and damage to tourism).
The problem is aggravated by the presence of microplastics, which are small particles contained in many objects in daily use (cosmetics, soap, washing residues, synthetic fabrics, etc.) or as a result of the break up of larger plastic objects. MIcroplastics are too small to be retained by waste-water treatment systems and flow into the sea. MEDCRAVE - 2017 - Occurrence and Impacts of Microplastics in Freshwater Fish.
THE GUARDIAN 14/02/17 From sea to plate: how plastic got into our fish. It’s enough to make you cry over your moules frites. Scientists at Ghent University in Belgium recently calculated that shellfish lovers are eating up to 11,000 plastic fragments in their seafood each year. We absorb fewer than 1%, but they will still accumulate in the body over time. The findings affect all Europeans, but, as the most voracious consumers of mussels, the Belgians were deemed to be most exposed. Britons should sympathise – last August, the results of a study by Plymouth University caused a stir when it was reported that plastic was found in a third of UK-caught fish, including cod, haddock, mackerel and shellfish.
Marine Environmental Research Available online 17 May 2016 Plastics and microplastics in the oceans: From emerging pollutants to emerged threat. FOOD PAKAGING FORUM 07/06/16 Effects of microplastics on fish. In an article published on June 2, 2016 by The Washington Post, journalist Chelsea Harvey reports on a new study investigating the effects of microplastic polystyrene particles on the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). The study was published in the peer-reviewed journal Science on June 3, 2016 and conducted by researchers Oona M. EPOCH 02/08/16 How Tiny Pieces of Plastic in Our Oceans Are ‘Terrifying’ For years, fish have been feeding on tiny pieces of plastic in the ocean, mistaking them for food.
MARINE POLLUTION - 2014 - High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. WATER AIR SOIL POLLUTION - 2014 - The effects of plastic pollution on aquatic wildlife: Current situations and future solutions. MARINE-LITTER-CONFERENCE-BERLIN - Poster : Stranded on our doorstep: plastic waste in the Baltic Sea. OCEAN CONSERVANCY - OCT 2015 - Stemming the Tide - Our 2015 report on a way forward to eliminate ocean plastic. LAB PRODUCT NEWS 19/08/15 Microplastics entering ocean food web through zooplankton. Vancouver, B.C. – Tiny microscopic animals called zooplankton are ingesting plastic particles at an alarming rate, according to a new study by Dr. Peter Ross, head of the Ocean Pollution Research Program at Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre. That could spell trouble for the entire aquatic food web. In a scientific paper released recently in the international journal Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Dr.
Environmental Pollution Volume 187, April 2014, Pages 49–54 Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION - 2014 - The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment. WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY - JUIN 2013 - Microplastics in the aquatic food chain. MARINE ECOLOGY - 1987 - Marine birds and plastic pollution. Biogeosciences Discussions 01/2012; Physical transport properties of marine microplastic pollution. ECOWATCH 01/08/14 Impacts of Plastic Pollution on Marine Life. The revolution of plastic in the fishing industry has fed billions, but left a paucity of life in the oceans and more suffering than we understand.
A lost nylon fishing net or tangled mass of hook and line does not stop fishing, the results are horrifying and solutions hard won. The big things living in the ocean usually sink when they die, which is why any estimate of ecological impacts, from propeller scars to entanglement in fishing nets, are nearly impossible. ECOWATCH 23/06/14 Plastic Waste Causes $13 Billion in Damages to Marine Ecosystems Each Year. Concern is growing over the threat that widespread plastic waste poses to marine life, with conservative estimates of the overall financial damage of plastics to marine ecosystems standing at $13 billion USD each year, according to two reports released on the opening day of the first UN Environment Assembly.
The eleventh edition of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Year Book looks at ten issues flagged as emerging by previous reports over the past decade, including plastic waste in the ocean. The UNEP Year Book 2014 gives an update on each issue and provides options for action. WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY - Dossier : Plastic waste and Marine wildlife. EHP - FEV 2015 - New Link in the Food Chain? Marine Plastic Pollution and Seafood Safety. CDC EID - Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 “Welcome to the World of the Plastic Beach” WATER AIR SOIL POLLUTION - 2014 - The effects of plastic pollution on aquatic wildlife: Current situations and future solutions. MARINE POLLUTION - 2014 - High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake.
Environmental Chemistry, 2015, pp.32 Beyond the ocean: Contamination of freshwater ecosystems with (micro-) plastic particles. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology - June 2015 - Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. LAB PRODUCT NEWS 19/08/15 Microplastics entering ocean food web through zooplankton. OCEAN CONSERVANCY - OCT 2015 - Stemming the Tide - Our 2015 report on a way forward to eliminate ocean plastic.