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ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY - AOUT 2014 - Hydraulic “Fracking”: Are Surface Water Impacts An Ecological Concern? SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 04/04/16 Fracking Can Contaminate Drinking Water. Former EPA scientist Dominic DiGiulio never gave up.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 04/04/16 Fracking Can Contaminate Drinking Water

Eight years ago, people in Pavillion, Wyo., living in the middle of a natural gas basin, complained of a bad taste and smell in their drinking water. U.S. EPA launched an inquiry, helmed by DiGiulio, and preliminary testing suggested that the groundwater contained toxic chemicals. Then, in 2013, the agency suddenly transferred the investigation to state regulators without publishing a final report. Now, DiGiulio has done it for them.

He published a comprehensive, peer-reviewed study last week in Environmental Science and Technology that suggests that people’s water wells in Pavillion were contaminated with fracking wastes that are typically stored in unlined pits dug into the ground. The study also suggests that the entire groundwater resource in the Wind River Basin is contaminated with chemicals linked to hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. Labs can’t see fracking chemicals One such chemical was methanol. Methanol, diesel and salt. EPA 16/08/16 EPA's Study of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources. GREENPEACE 28/08/13 Shale and water: Is there a risk of water contamination? PLOS 19/02/14 Shale Gas, Wind and Water: Assessing the Potential Cumulative Impacts of Energy Development on Ecosystem Services.

Global demand for energy has increased by more than 50 percent in the last half-century, and a similar increase is projected by 2030.

PLOS 19/02/14 Shale Gas, Wind and Water: Assessing the Potential Cumulative Impacts of Energy Development on Ecosystem Services

This demand will increasingly be met with alternative and unconventional energy sources. Development of these resources causes disturbances that strongly impact terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The Marcellus Shale gas play covers more than 160,934 km2 in an area that provides drinking water for over 22 million people in several of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g. New York City, Washington DC, Philadelphia & Pittsburgh). Here we created probability surfaces representing development potential of wind and shale gas for portions of six states in the Central Appalachians. Figures Citation: Evans JS, Kiesecker JM (2014) Shale Gas, Wind and Water: Assessing the Potential Cumulative Impacts of Energy Development on Ecosystem Services within the Marcellus Play.

FORT NELSON FIRST NATION 04/01/14 Improving the regulation of fracking wastewater disposal in BC. PROPUBLICA 18/07/14 California Halts Injection of Fracking Waste, Warning it May Be Contaminating Aquifers. California officials have ordered an emergency shut-down of 11 oil and gas waste injection sites and a review more than 100 others in the state's drought-wracked Central Valley out of fear that companies may have been pumping fracking fluids and other toxic waste into drinking water aquifers there.

PROPUBLICA 18/07/14 California Halts Injection of Fracking Waste, Warning it May Be Contaminating Aquifers

The state's Division of Oil and Gas and Geothermal Resources on July 7 issued cease and desist orders to seven energy companies warning that they may be injecting their waste into aquifers that could be a source of drinking water, and stating that their waste disposal "poses danger to life, health, property, and natural resources. " The orders were first reported by the Bakersfield Californian, and the state has confirmed with ProPublica that its investigation is expanding to look at additional wells. The action comes as California's agriculture industry copes with a drought crisis that has emptied reservoirs and cost the state $2.2 billion this year alone. USA TODAY 05/01/14 4 states confirm water pollution from drilling. PITTSBURGH (AP) — In at least four states that have nurtured the nation's energy boom, hundreds of complaints have been made about well-water contamination from oil or gas drilling, and pollution was confirmed in a number of them, according to a review that casts doubt on industry suggestions that such problems rarely happen.

USA TODAY 05/01/14 4 states confirm water pollution from drilling

The Associated Press requested data on drilling-related complaints in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Texas and found major differences in how the states report such problems. Texas provided the most detail, while the other states provided only general outlines. And while the confirmed problems represent only a tiny portion of the thousands of oil and gas wells drilled each year in the U.S., the lack of detail in some state reports could help fuel public confusion and mistrust. The AP found that Pennsylvania received 398 complaints in 2013 alleging that oil or natural gas drilling polluted or otherwise affected private water wells, compared with 499 in 2012.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN - OCT 2010 - Is Fracking behind Contamination in Wyoming Groundwater? By Jeff Tollefson of Nature magazine The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sparked a firestorm in December last year when it released a draft report suggesting that the use of hydraulic fracturing — or 'fracking' — to extract natural gas had contaminated groundwater near Pavillion, Wyoming.

Questions about whether hydraulic fracturing is to blame remain as the EPA prepares for peer review – guatemalt

Industry officials have long denied that fracking affects groundwater, and Pavillion has become the first high-profile test of this claim.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN - OCT 2010 - Is Fracking behind Contamination in Wyoming Groundwater?

On 26 September, the US Geological Survey (USGS) released data showing the presence of groundwater contamination in the region. Although the data would seem to support the EPA’s assessment — as does an independent analysis released by environmental groups this week — the survey did not seek to determine the source of the contamination. Nature examines the on-going debate and how it relates to broader questions about groundwater contamination from fracking across the United States. How did this investigation begin? What do the latest results suggest? NATURE 11/07/13 Shale gas: Pollution fears in China. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH WEB 17/05/13 Study finds no evidence of water contamination from shale gas drilling in Arkansas. A new study by scientists at Duke University and the U.S.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH WEB 17/05/13 Study finds no evidence of water contamination from shale gas drilling in Arkansas

Geological Survey (USGS) finds no evidence of groundwater contamination from shale gas production in Arkansas. Water 2012, 4(4), 983-994 Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus. PNAS 17/05/11 Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. PNAS 06/03/13 Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania. GREENPEACE 24/04/12 Position statement on shale gas, shale oil, coal bed methane and ‘fracking’ NRDC - JULY 2012 - Hydraulic Fracturing Can Potentially Contaminate Drinking Water Sources. SCIENCE 17/05/13 Impact of Shale Gas Development on Regional Water Quality. WORLD SOCIALIST WEB SITE 09/07/13 Scientific study confirms groundwater contamination by hydraulic fracturing. By Philip Guelpa 9 July 2013 For years companies engaged in high-volume, horizontal hydraulic fracturing, also known as hydrofracking or simply fracking, used for the extraction of natural gas and oil from shale deposits, have claimed that this process is safe for the environment and for people.

WORLD SOCIALIST WEB SITE 09/07/13 Scientific study confirms groundwater contamination by hydraulic fracturing

The results of new research published in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS, 24 June 2013) lend strong support to the conclusion that toxic chemicals associated with hydrofracking are leaking from gas wells into surrounding ground water. This finding corroborates what has long been obvious based on numerous documented instances of contamination in the drinking water wells of homes near hydrofracking drill sites, including the famous video of a homeowner igniting the water pouring from a tap, due to the high concentration of dissolved natural gas.

RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE - MARS 2013 - Shale Gas Development and the Costs of Groundwater Contamination Risk. OIL & GAS JOURNAL 07/01/13 Evaluating claims of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing.