BIORXIV 21/10/17 Impact of global change on future Ebola emergence and epidemic potential in Africa. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 17; Deployable CRISPR-Cas13a diagnostic tools to detect and report Ebola and Lassa virus cases in real-time. Ethical approval for the use of clinical samples All patient samples used for this study were de-identified and were obtained through studies that were evaluated and approved by the institutional review boards at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (Irrua, Nigeria), Redeemer’s University (Nigeria), KGH (Sierra Leone), Sierra Leone Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health of the DRC, and Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts).
LF patients were recruited for this study using protocols approved by human subjects committees at Harvard University, Broad Institute, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, KGH, Oyo State Ministry of Health, Ibadan, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone Ministry of Health. All patients were treated with a similar standard of care and were offered the drug Ribavirin, whether or not they decided to participate in the study. Due to the severe outbreak for EVD, patients could not be consented through our standard protocols. Principal Investigator: Pardis C. Harvard University.
PLOS 17/03/20 Automated monitoring of tweets for early detection of the 2014 Ebola epidemic. Abstract First reported in March 2014, an Ebola epidemic impacted West Africa, most notably Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone.
We demonstrate the value of social media for automated surveillance of infectious diseases such as the West Africa Ebola epidemic. We experiment with two variations of an existing surveillance architecture: the first aggregates tweets related to different symptoms together, while the second considers tweets about each symptom separately and then aggregates the set of alerts generated by the architecture. Using a dataset of tweets posted from the affected region from 2011 to 2014, we obtain alerts in December 2013, which is three months prior to the official announcement of the epidemic.
Among the two variations, the second, which produces a restricted but useful set of alerts, can potentially be applied to other infectious disease surveillance and alert systems. Editor: Eric Forgoston, Montclair State University, UNITED STATES Copyright: © 2020 Joshi et al. Data. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 07/05/20 Misinformation and the US Ebola communication crisis: analyzing the veracity and content of social media messages related to a fear-inducing infectious disease outbreak. Of the 3639 coded tweets, 526 (14%) were excluded either for irrelevant language, foreign language, or because coders considered them to be peripheral to the Ebola outbreak (e.g. focused on sporting events, Halloween costumes, or other unrelated topics).
The remainder of the analysis is focused on the final set of 3113 tweets. Tweets fell into three broad categories: health information, political statements, and jokes. Health information statements (60%) generally featured information about the disease, its potential spread, and transmission (e.g. “I’m sick of y’all and the ignorance about Ebola. Ebola is harder to catch than the common cold and is spread by blood and bodily fluids”). Scientific African Available online 8 February 2020 Outsmarting Ebola through stronger national health systems. The most recent Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) highlights the ongoing challenge the continent of Africa faces with Ebola and the importance of strong health systems in dealing with such outbreaks.
Since the first recorded Ebola outbreak occurred simultaneously in DRC and in Sudan in 1976, there have been 29 outbreaks in Africa, affecting 10 countries (Figure 1), with the most severe occurring in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014 (Spengler et al., 2016, Dhama et al., 2015). Download : Download full-size image Figure 1. NATURE 01/10/18 Ebola viral dynamics in nonhuman primates provides insights into virus immuno-pathogenesis and antiviral strategies. Description of the experiments We used data of four successive experiments performed in the Inserm-Jean Mérieux biosafety level 4 laboratory in Lyon in cynomolgus macaques that were left untreated or were treated by intravenous favipiravir (Fig. 1a, Supplementary Table 3).
Briefly, female cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius (3 years aged and weighting 2.8-4 kg) were challenged intramuscularly with dose inoculum of 10, 100, or 1000 focus forming units (ffu) of Ebola virus Gabon 2001 strain, with no difference in survival or viral kinetics across the different inoculum groups9. Zaire Ebola virus Gabon 2001 strain was chosen due to its high observed lethality in patients and its availability at the beginning of the experiments.
Treatment was initiated 2 days before infection, and favipiravir was administered twice a day every 12 h, by 10 min infusion, after intramuscular anesthesia using Zoletil (Tiletamine/Zolazepam). Data collected. NATURE 10/01/29 Post-exposure immunotherapy for two ebolaviruses and Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Regulatory statement Animal research performed at US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) was conducted under a protocol approved by the USAMRIID Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and other federal statutes and regulations relating to animals and experiments involving animals.
The USAMRIID facility is fully accredited by the Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International and adheres to the principles stated in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, 2011. Challenge studies are conducted under maximum containment in an animal biosafety level 4 facility. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 25/04/19 How did Ebola information spread on twitter: broadcasting or viral spreading? Data collection Our data was purchased from GNIP, the official provider of Twitter data.
We used the query “contains: ebola OR #ebola OR ébola OR #ébola” to obtain the population of Ebola-related tweets (including all retweets and replies) posted globally from March 23, 2014 to May 31, 2015 (inclusive). March 23, 2014 was chosen at the start date because it was the day when CDC began its Ebola emergency response. May 31, 2015 was the cut-off point when this data set was purchased. We obtained 36,931,362 relevant tweets, which were originated from all around the world and were publicly available.
Of these relevant tweets, 52.3% (18,949,515) were original tweets. INTECH 19/12/18 Ebola Virus Disease: Progress So Far in the Management of the Disease. SCIENTIFIC DATA 31/01/17 A systematic review and meta-analysis of seroprevalence surveys of ebolavirus infection. NATURE 08/06/18 Phylodynamic assessment of intervention strategies for the West African Ebola virus outbreak. Assessing the impact of hypothetical intervention strategies Similar to Ratmann et al.43, we use a phylogenetic pruning approach to investigate prevention strategies, but now specifically relying on the associated estimates of spatial spread.
We build on the phylogeographic reconstruction performed by Dudas et al.27, who used a GLM-parameterisation of discrete phylogenetic diffusion44. Based on a data set of 1610 viral genomes sampled between 17 March 2014 and 24 October 2015 (available at Dudas et al.27 used this approach to reconstruct a history of lineage movements between 56 administrative regions in Guinea (prefectures), Sierra Leone (districts) and Liberia (counties). Their Bayesian inference resulted in a posterior distribution of time-measured trees, each annotated with inferred ancestral locations, which was summarised as an MCC tree. Bayesian skygrid estimation with covariates Continuous phylogeographic inference. NATURE 02/12/15 The role of rapid diagnostics in managing Ebola epidemics. We examine RDTs using three different metrics, characterizing their impact on individual patient outcomes (represented by the expected case fatality ratio (CFR) for a person suspected of having Ebola who is seeking care), the effectiveness with which health-care units reduce transmission (represented by the reproduction number for a person with a true Ebola infection seeking care), and the overall scale of an epidemic (represented by the total number of cases).
We evaluate the first two metrics using a model that focuses on the impact of different testing strategies implemented in the context of a single health-care unit, and the third using a model of the transmission dynamics of Ebola in Sierra Leone as a whole. Potential impact of RDTs in a health-care unit To evaluate the impact of a testing strategy from a patient perspective, we compare the CFR among people with suspected Ebola seeking care with the CFR among those same patients had they not sought care (community CFR). HORIZON MAGAZINE (EU) 21/06/18 Ebola outbreak – this time it’s different. A new Ebola epidemic in the DRC has killed at least 28 people since April but a situation report from the World Health Organization (WHO) on 19 June says they are monitoring the outbreak with cautious optimism.
The contrast with the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa is stark. That epidemic killed more than 11,000 people and prompted criticism of local and global health organisations for taking too long to get the outbreak under control. This time, when Ebola struck, the world was better prepared. Over the past two years, networks of researchers and health workers have been established, lab infrastructure has been built up, and vaccines have been fast-tracked through research and development and the regulatory system, helped by a global network of funders in preparedness research called GloPID-R. FRONT. ICT 10/04/18 Ebola Outbreak Containment: Real-Time Task and Resource Coordination With SORMAS. 1. Introduction Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Ebola require immediate action on control measures to avoid further spreading of the disease.
High population mobility, stigmatization of people considered infectious, and fears of people who have been in contact with them require a large number of public health staff to reach out to the population. Especially contact tracing, i.e., identifying and monitoring each person who has been in contact with an infected person, is a crucial and time-intensive task for human-to-human transmittable diseases, such as Ebola. In addition to this challenge, public health staff must validate all rumors from the public about infected people.
The process of outbreak containment involves predefined measures that must be undertaken if specific criteria are fulfilled, e.g., a new case is detected, and specific data that must be collected. NATURE 08/06/18 Phylodynamic assessment of intervention strategies for the West African Ebola virus outbreak. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 15/05/18 Changes in risk perceptions during the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic: results of two consecutive surveys among the general population in Lower Saxony, Germany. Our research showed that affective response as well as knowledge and the cognitive dimension “perceived likelihood of infection” decreased as the epidemic became less visible, while the cognitive dimensions “perceived personal impact” and “coping efficacy” did not. During the first survey, more than one quarter of participants were worried personally about EVD, but at the second survey, only 2% were, which is directly proportional to the drop in the number of EVD cases; however, over half of the participants felt they were at high risk of contracting EVD if they traveled to an affected country, which implies that participants thought that they would not be able to cope with the situation in affected countries, although they had good knowledge about transmission of EVD and, thus, also how to avoid it.
VIRUSES 13/03/18 Development and Testing of a Method for Validating Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus. RISK ANALYSIS 15/08/17 A Risk Analysis Approach to Prioritizing Epidemics: Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa as a Case Study. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY 24/08/17 IAEA brings together experts from Africa to increase preparedness for Ebola and other zoonotic diseases. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is bringing together African human health, veterinary and wildlife experts this week to strengthen early warning systems for managing animal-to-human, or zoonotic, disease outbreaks. More than 150 participants from 40 African countries are meeting at the IAEA’s headquarters in Vienna to share experiences in order to improve national surveillance networks for monitoring and containing the spread of highly contagious viruses, such as avian influenza, Ebola, Marburg, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and monkeypox.
The 21-25 August meeting is part of a joint IAEA/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) project initiated in 2014 during the Ebola crisis in West Africa. The project provides diagnostic equipment and training to African countries. Around 75 percent of human diseases originate from animals.
“Early detection is the key,” said Trevor Shoemaker, an epidemiologist at CDC who was formerly based in Uganda. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 24/05/17 Ebola Virus Delta Peptide is a Viroporin. JOURNAL VETERINARY QUARTERLY 13/04/17 Ebola virus – epidemiology, diagnosis, and control: threat to humans, lessons learnt, and preparedness plans – an update on its 40 year's journey. WebImagesPlus… TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 27/08/15 Assessing the Potential Role of Pigs in the Epidemiology of Ebola Virus in Uganda.
American Journal of Infection Control Volume 44, Issue 12, 1 December 2016, Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review. GAO 02/11/16 Emergency Funding for Ebola Response: Some USAID Reimbursements Did Not Comply with Legislative Requirements and Need to Be Reversed. What GAO Found As of July 1, 2016, the U.S. CENTER FOR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT 03/11/16 GAO Report Misses the Point on USG Ebola Response. Virus Research Volume 210, 2 December 2015 Viral bioterrorism: Learning the lesson of Ebola virus in West Africa 2013–2015. ELIFESCIENCES 14/07/16 Updates to the zoonotic niche map of Ebola virus disease in Africa. Summary: The reviewers and Reviewing Editor felt that this update to your previous model onthe zoonotic niche for Ebola virus disease in Africa (Pigott et al. 2014)addressed an important, original and timely research question.
The study was welldesigned, analysed and presented. YENISAFAK 22/03/16 Two new deaths, 816 suspected Ebola cases in Guinea. Guinean authorities have announced the death of two people from Ebola virus and 816 suspected cases in the southern part of the country where the virus reappeared last week. NATURE 26/05/15 A review of epidemiological parameters from Ebola outbreaks to inform early public health decision-making. MICROSOFT RESEARCH - 2015 - Ebola data from the Internet: An opportunity for syndromic surveillance or a news event? International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 38, September 2015, Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.
Figure 1. COMP MED - JUNE 2015 - A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'. Clinical Microbiology and Infection Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2014, Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime. Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. CELL 18/06/15 Ebola Virus Epidemiology, Transmission, and Evolution during Seven Months in Sierra Leone.
Figure 1. Biosensors and Bioelectronics Volume 75, 15 January 2016, Towards detection and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease at point-of-care. Biosensors & Bioelectronics. 05/2015; Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola. UNITED NATIONS - JANV 2015 - Socio-Economic Impacts of Ebola on Africa. ROBERT KOCH INSTITUT 30/12/14 Wildlife origins of West African Ebola virus disease outbreak narrowed down. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 27/08/15 Assessing the Potential Role of Pigs in the Epidemiology of Ebola Virus in Uganda.
THE SCRIPPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 26/06/15 TSRI and Biotech Partners Find New Antibody Weapons against Marburg Virus. CAP TODAY 09/03/15 Biocartis to develop rapid Ebola virus triage test. MICROSOFT RESEARCH - 2015 - Ebola data from the Internet: An opportunity for syndromic surveillance or a news event? Actualités CDC concernant EBOLA.
Actualités PLOS. Actualités NEJM. Actualités LANCET. World Journal of Medical Sciences 11 (3): 324-333, 2014 Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as Emerging Zoonotic Disease. Epidemics Volume 9, December 2014, Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PARASITOLOGISTS 28/10/14 American Society of Parasitologists Urges Support for Ebola Health Workers, End to Unfounded Travel Bans. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine - 2015 - Laboratory diagnostic tools for checking Ebola viral infections in Africa. THE ROYAL SOCIETY 01/04/15 Avoidable errors in the modelling of outbreaks of emerging pathogens, with special reference to Ebola.
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine - 2015 - Laboratory diagnostic tools for checking Ebola viral infections in Africa. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses - Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015. SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE 20/08/14 Marburg virus infection in nonhuman primates: Therapeutic treatment by lipid-encapsulated siRNA. ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 28/10/14 Effect of Ebola Progression on Transmission and Control in Liberia. World Journal of Medical Sciences 11 (3): 324-333, 2014 Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as Emerging Zoonotic Disease. OJVR - 2012 - Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: Past and present. ESCIENCE NEWS 15/08/13 Scripps Research Institute scientists reveal how deadly Ebola virus assembles. Dev Biol (Basel). 2013;135:211-8. Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals. OXFORD JOURNAL - 2011 - Ebola Virus as a Foodborne Pathogen? Cause for Consideration, but Not Panic.
JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH - 2012 - Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: Past and present. NATURE 15/10/14 Ebola by the numbers: The size, spread and cost of an outbreak. PUBLIC HEALTH ENGLAND 24/10/14 Ebola: risk assessment in prison.