One Health Volume 13, December 2021, CAFOs, novel influenza, and the need for One Health approaches. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) present highly efficient means of meeting food demands.
CAFOs create unique conditions that can affect the health and environment of animals and humans within and outside operations, leading to potential epidemiological concerns that scale with operational size. One such arena meriting further investigation is their possible contribution to novel influenzas. VIRUSES 09/11/21 Influenza A Viruses and Zoonotic Events—Are We Creating Our Own Reservoirs? Zoonotic infections of humans with influenza A viruses (IAVs) from animal reservoirs can result in severe disease in individuals and, in rare cases, lead to pandemic outbreaks; this is exemplified by numerous cases of human infection with avian IAVs (AIVs) and the 2009 swine influenza pandemic.
In fact, zoonotic transmissions are strongly facilitated by manmade reservoirs that were created through the intensification and industrialization of livestock farming. This can be witnessed by the repeated introduction of IAVs from natural reservoirs of aquatic wild bird metapopulations into swine and poultry, and the accompanied emergence of partially- or fully-adapted human pathogenic viruses. On the other side, human adapted IAV have been (and still are) introduced into livestock by reverse zoonotic transmission. VIRUSES 27/05/21 Diversity and Reassortment Rate of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Ducks and Gulls. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) evolve via point mutations and reassortment of viral gene segments.
The patterns of reassortment in different host species differ considerably. We investigated the genetic diversity of IAVs in wild ducks and compared it with the viral diversity in gulls. The complete genomes of 38 IAVs of H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H5N3, H6N2, H11N6, and H11N9 subtypes isolated from wild mallard ducks and gulls resting in a city pond in Moscow, Russia were sequenced. The analysis of phylogenetic trees showed that stable viral genotypes do not persist from year to year in ducks owing to frequent gene reassortment. For comparison, similar analyses were carried out using sequences of IAVs isolated in the same period from ducks and gulls in The Netherlands. CDC EID - JANV 2020 - Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017. Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions.
Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released. Daniel K.W. Chu1, Ranawaka A.P.M. International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 88, November 2019, Animal influenza virus infections in humans: A commentary. Alford et al., 1967 R.H.
Alford, J.A. Kasel, J.R. Lehrich, V. University of Maryland - 2011 - Thèse en ligne : MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF INFLUENZA IN SWINE AND ENGINEERING OF NOVEL RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VIRUSES. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 03/09/18 Quantifying the effect of swab pool size on the detection of influenza A viruses in broiler chickens and its implications for surveillance. Using data from experimental infections of chickens with either H5 or H7 viruses, the performance of RT-PCR, FluDETECT and VetScan in detecting IAV was evaluated.
For individual OP RT-PCR positive swabs (Table 2), FluDETECT detected 37% of H5 samples and 58% of H7 samples (9% and 16% more H5 and H7 virus PCR positive samples than VetScan). These detected proportions from clinically normal LPAIV-infected birds are lower than those reported for samples taken from HPAIV-infected sick or dead birds. Note however that even lower sensitivities (ranging from 0 to 5%) were reported for other LFI kits on individual swabs of H6N2 LPAIV . In this study (conducted with LPAIV), the mean virus titers in the individual swabs detected by both LFI kits were comparable, and H7 samples had higher titers and more LFI positive proportions among RT-PCR positive samples than the H5 virus. On test sensitivities for HPAIV, the ability of LFI kits to detect H5N1 virus subtype has been previously assessed.
CDC EID - JULY 2018 - Progress and Remaining Gaps in Estimating the Global Disease Burden of Influenza. Article Metrics Citations: Joseph Bresee.
N Engl J Med 2018; 378:2057-2060 Innovation for Pandemics. THE CONVERSATION 09/03/18 Influenza’s wild origins in the animals around us. In the early 20th century, the leading cause of death was infectious disease.
Epidemics erupted with little warning, seemingly out of the blue. When the “Great Influenza” struck in 1918, it killed thousands of people a week in American cities and spread like wildfire around the globe. My great aunt, still a teenager, and living in the San Francisco area, was one of its estimated 50 to 100 million victims worldwide. Neither public health authorities nor medical researchers understood that it was a virus that caused the 1918 pandemic – most of the world at that time didn’t even know what a virus was. A century later, death due to infection is much less common, thanks to public health efforts and improved medical technology and expertise. My laboratory, along with others around the world, is working to understand how and why new influenza viruses may grip us again.
Identifying the invisible, infectious virus Natural world a reservoir for human disease. CDC EID - MARS 2018 - Use of Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness. Stephen A.
Burke and Susan C. Trock. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 25/09/17 Influenza herd-level prevalence and seasonality in breed-to-wean pig farms in the Midwestern United States. 1Veterinary Population Medicine Department, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, United States 2Pipestone Veterinary Services, United States 3Mathematics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Influenza is a costly disease for pig producers and understanding its epidemiology is critical to control it.
In this study, we aimed to estimate the herd-level prevalence and seasonality of influenza in breed-to-wean pig farms, evaluate the correlation between influenza herd-level prevalence and meteorological conditions, and characterize influenza genetic diversity over time. A cohort of 34 breed-to-wean farms with monthly influenza status obtained over a 5 year period in piglets prior to wean were selected. A farm was considered positive in a given month if at least one oral fluid tested influenza positive by RT-PCR. Influenza seasonality was assessed combining autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with trigonometric functions as covariates. J Theor Biol. 2016 Jul 7;400:138-53. Reconstruction of disease transmission rates: Applications to measles, dengue, and influenza. CDC EID - Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017. Au sommaire notamment: Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015.
Elias Salem, Elizabeth A.J. NATURE MICROBIOLOGY 12/04/17 Pathogenicity and transmission of a swine influenza A(H6N6) virus. Citation: Emerging Microbes & Infections (2017) 6, e17; doi:10.1038/emi.2017.3Published online 12 April 2017 Hailiang Sun1, Bryan S Kaplan2, Minhui Guan1, Guihong Zhang3, Jianqiang Ye1, Li-Ping Long1, Sherry Blackmon1, Chun-Kai Yang1, Meng-Jung Chiang4, Hang Xie4, Nan Zhao1, Jim Cooley5, David F Smith6, Ming Liao3, Carol Cardona7, Lei Li8, George Peng Wang8, Richard Webby2 and Xiu-Feng Wan1 Top of page Influenza A virus (IAV) is an enveloped, segmented, single- and negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae.
INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES 30/01/17 Origin, distribution, and potential risk factors associated with influenza A virus in swine in two production systems in Guatemala. Background Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. Objectives. CDC EID - FEV 2017 - Au sommaire notamment: Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile.
Author affiliations: University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (N. Bravo-Vasquez, C. Hamilton-West); St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (E.A. Karlsson, P. CDC EID - AOUT 2016 – Au sommaire notamment : Influenza D Virus Infection in Herd of Cattle, Japan. Suggested citation for this article To the Editor: Although the provisionally named influenza D virus was first isolated as an influenza C–like virus from pigs with respiratory illness in Oklahoma in 2011 (1,2), epidemiologic analyses suggested that cattle are major reservoirs of this virus (3) and the virus is potentially involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex.
The high rates of illness and death related to this disease in feedlot cattle are caused by multiple factors, including several viral and bacterial co-infections. Influenza D viruses were detected in cattle and pigs with respiratory diseases (and in some healthy cattle) in China (4), France (5), Italy (6), among other countries, indicating their wide global geographic distribution. Although the influenza D virus, like the human influenza C virus, is known to use 9-O-acetylated sialic acids as the cell receptor (2,7), its zoonotic potential is undefined because of limited research (1,8). Figure References. JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 29/06/16 High turnover drives prolonged persistence of influenza in managed pig herds. Trakia Journal of Sciences, No 2, pp 205-209, 2013 CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) AS POTENTIAL INCUBATORS FOR INFLUENZA OUTBREAKS. INFECTION ECOLOGY & EPIDEMIOLOGY - 2012 - Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) in the environment, resistance development in influenza A viruses of dabbling ducks and the risk of transmission of an oseltamivir-resistant virus to humans — a review.
Johnson, NP, Mueller, J. Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 "Spanish" influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med. 2002;76: 105-115. NIH 09/04/14 NIH Funds Influenza Research and Surveillance Network. CDC EID - MAI 2014 - Au sommaire: Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012. Zhixin Feng, John A.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014 Antiviral Prophylaxis and Isolation for the Control of Pandemic Influenza. Viruses 2014, 6(8), 3159-3180 Options and Obstacles for Designing a Universal Influenza Vaccine. 1. VACCINE - 2000 - Strategies for inducing protection against avian influenza A virus subtypes with DNA vaccines. WebImagesPlus… Connexion Recherche avancée Scholar Scholar. CDC EID - Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015 Au sommaire: Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014. Author affiliations: French National Institute for Agronomy Research (INRA) and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire (INP-ENVT), Toulouse, France (M.F. Ducatez, G. Vaccines 2015, 3(1), 172-185; Emerging Influenza Strains in the Last Two Decades: A Threat of a New Pandemic? 1.
PIGSITE 25/01/16 High Levels of Swine Flu Detected on US Pig Farms. News High Levels of Swine Flu Detected on US Pig Farms 25 January 2016 US - Three separate strains of influenza A virus (IAV) have been detected in animal and environmental samples taken from six swine farms in southern Minnesota and northern Iowa with suspected flu outbreaks. BioMed Research International 08/07/15 Challenges and Strategies of Laboratory Diagnosis for Newly Emerging Influenza Viruses in Taiwan: A Decade after SARS.
CDC EID - Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015. Au sommaire: Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil ; Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz - vol.108 issue5. Global Veterinaria 11 (2): 2013 Au sommaire notamment:Isolation of Influenza A and B Viruses from Pigs at Bodija Abattoir, Ibada. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY - 2012 - Complete genome sequence of a novel H4N1 Influenza virus isolated from a pig in Central China. Références universitaires. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158:996-1006. Prediction of the Spread of Influenza Epidemics by the Method of Analogues. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009;48:1254–1256 Influenza Virus Resistance to Antiviral Agents: A Plea for Rational Use. + Author Affiliations Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Gregory A. Poland, Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, 611C Guggenheim Bldg., 200 First St.
SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (firstname.lastname@example.org). Abstract. Epidemiol. Infect. (2011), 139, 68–79. Model predictions and evaluation of possible control strategies for the 2009 A/H1N1v infl. Journal of General Virology (2003), 84, 2285–2292 The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: a continuing enigma. J Mol Genet Med (2008), 0(0), 00-00 The pig as a mixing vessel for influenza viruses: Human and veterinary implication. OFFICE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES - Meeting - December 2-4, 2008 Public Health and Biosafety Practices for Research with 1918 H. MIT - Présentation en ligne - Pathogenicity and transmissibility of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic virus. NEJM 07/05/09 PERSPECTIVE - Digital Disease Detection — Harnessing the Web for Public Health Surveillance. NEJM 07/05/09 PERSPECTIVE - The Signature Features of Influenza Pandemics — Implications for Policy. NHS 10/07/09 Swine flu: early epidemiology. OBA - RAC Meetings - 2000 to 2009. OMS - FEV 2013 - Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruse.
Vaccine 24 (2006) 6701–6707 Transmissibility and mortality impact of epidemic and pandemic influenza, with emphasis on the unusu. Virology Journal 2009, 6:69 Protein intrinsic disorder and influenza virulence: the 1918 H1N1 and H5N1 viruses.
J. Clin. Microbiol. November 2010 Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to P. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES - JANV 2013 - Nowcasting influenza outbreaks using open-source media reports. Influenza Research and Treatment Volume 2011 (2011), The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza V. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz vol.108 no.5 Rio de Janeiro Aug. 2013 Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in B.