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COVID-19 et rapport avec le changement climatique

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AFP 05/02/21 Le rôle des changements climatiques dans l’apparition de la COVID-19 se précise. LE PARISIEN 07/02/21 Covid-19 : le réchauffement climatique, une cause prise au sérieux. La chauve-souris blâmée, le pangolin stigmatisé … Mais l'homme, dans tout ça?

LE PARISIEN 07/02/21 Covid-19 : le réchauffement climatique, une cause prise au sérieux

D'après une étude menée par des chercheurs de l'université de Cambridge (Royaume-Uni), publiée dans la revue « Science of the Total Environment », le réchauffement climatique occasionné par l'espèce humaine pourrait avoir joué un rôle dans la transmission, jusqu'à elle-même, du coronavirus responsable du Covid-19. Une théorie de l'arroseur arrosé, sur fond de pandémie. L'étude s'intéresse à la chauve-souris, remarquable vecteur de coronavirus (CoVs) puisque chacune d'elle, rappellent les auteurs de l'article, est porteuse d'en moyenne 2,7 coronavirus. En se basant sur des données de température et de pluviométrie, elle met plus précisément en lumière les nouvelles régions dans lesquelles cet animal a élu domicile, qu'il ne fréquentait pas par le passé. Une étude trop peu précise ? UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE - FEV 2021 - Climate change may have driven the emergence of SARS-CoV-2.

A new study published today in the journal Science of the Total Environment provides the first evidence of a mechanism by which climate change could have played a direct role in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic.

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE - FEV 2021 - Climate change may have driven the emergence of SARS-CoV-2

The study has revealed large-scale changes in the type of vegetation in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan, and adjacent regions in Myanmar and Laos, over the last century. Climatic changes including increases in temperature, sunlight, and atmospheric carbon dioxide - which affect the growth of plants and trees - have changed natural habitats from tropical shrubland to tropical savannah and deciduous woodland. This created a suitable environment for many bat species that predominantly live in forests. The number of coronaviruses in an area is closely linked to the number of different bat species present. “As climate change altered habitats, species left some areas and moved into others - taking their viruses with them. Science of The Total Environment Available online 26 January 2021, Shifts in global bat diversity suggest a possible role of climate change in the emergence of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.

Highlights Bats are the likely zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.

Science of The Total Environment Available online 26 January 2021, Shifts in global bat diversity suggest a possible role of climate change in the emergence of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2

The local number of coronaviruses is correlated with bat species richness. Climate change has shifted the global distribution of bats. THENATIONALNEWS 18/01/21 Methane emissions fell 10% in 2020 due to Covid-19, IEA says. Emissions of methane – a greenhouse gas – fell by about 10 per cent in 2020, largely due to lower oil and gas production amid the Covid-19 pandemic, according to the International Energy Agency.

THENATIONALNEWS 18/01/21 Methane emissions fell 10% in 2020 due to Covid-19, IEA says

Oil and gas companies released more than 70 million tonnes of methane into the atmosphere last year, the Paris-based agency said in a report on Monday. The amount of methane emitted in 2020 is equivalent to carbon dioxide emissions from all of the EU countries. Methane is far more potent than carbon dioxide, which is more commonly cited as the biggest contributor to global warming. "The immediate task now for the oil and gas industry is to make sure that there is no resurgence in methane emissions, even as the world economy recovers, and that 2019 becomes their historical peak," Fatih Birol, the IEA's executive director, said. Efforts to decarbonise economies by ensuring early action on controlling methane emissions will be "critical" in avoiding the worst effects of climate change, he said.

RENDEZ VOUS DE L HISTOIRE VIA YOUTUBE 13/01/21 Covid-19 et réchauffement climatique - Christian de Perthuis. 20MINUTES 11/12/20 CO2 : Les émissions mondiales ont baissé en 2020 sous l’effet des confinements… mais de 7 % seulement. Comme chaque fin d’année, le Global carbon project (GPC), consortium international de 86 chercheurs, publie son bilan annuel des émissions mondiales de CO2.

20MINUTES 11/12/20 CO2 : Les émissions mondiales ont baissé en 2020 sous l’effet des confinements… mais de 7 % seulement

Avec une question dans toutes les têtes cette année : quel impact a eu le Covid-19 sur les émissions mondiales ? Le GPC estime à 7 % la baisse des émissions en 2020 par rapport à 2019. 20MINUTES 09/12/20 Coronavirus : La crise du Covid-19 a-t-elle mis un coup d’arrêt à la lutte pour le climat ? Les indices du réchauffement de la planète se multiplient dans le monde, en pleine pandémie de coronavirus.

20MINUTES 09/12/20 Coronavirus : La crise du Covid-19 a-t-elle mis un coup d’arrêt à la lutte pour le climat ?

Si la première vague au printemps a marqué un temps d’arrêt dans la lutte pour le climat, elle a depuis repris notamment en Europe, où un budget inédit sera consacré à la relance verte. Pour autant, la crise économique pourrait freiner ces ambitions. Virus, vaccin, pandémie, tests, confinement… Depuis neuf mois, un nouveau vocabulaire a envahi notre quotidien, au risque d’étouffer l’urgence du « monde d’avant », celle du climat.

Environmental and Resource Economics 03/08/20 Five Lessons from COVID-19 for Advancing Climate Change Mitigation. Environmental and Resource Economics 04/08/20 COVID-19 and EU Climate Targets: Can We Now Go Further? The COVID-19 outbreak has been more than a global health crisis and humanitarian emergency.

Environmental and Resource Economics 04/08/20 COVID-19 and EU Climate Targets: Can We Now Go Further?

In an attempt to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus, governments around the world have taken unilateral measures that range from temporary closure of educational institutions and international travel restrictions to a complete lockdown. As a result, streets are free of vehicles, flights are grounded, factories are closed and economic activities have slowed down. These measures have had a dramatic effect on the global economy and on the wider environment. The International Energy Agency (IEA), in its review of the first quarter in 2020, estimates an average of 25% decline in energy demand in countries in full lockdown and an average of 18% decrease in countries in partial lockdown (IEA 2020). Global energy demand is forecast to fall by 6% for the year, equivalent to the annual combined energy demand of the UK, Italy, France and Germany.

PHYS_ORG 01/06/20 Detecting methane emissions during COVID-19. While carbon dioxide is more abundant in the atmosphere and therefore more commonly associated with global warming, methane is around 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas.

PHYS_ORG 01/06/20 Detecting methane emissions during COVID-19

Given its importance, Canadian company GHGSat have worked in collaboration with the Sentinel-5P team at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research to investigate hotspots of methane emissions during COVID-19. Carbon dioxide is generally produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, while fossil fuel production is one of the largest sources of methane emissions. According to the World Meteorological Organisation's State of the Global Climate report last year, current carbon dioxide and methane concentrations represent respectively 150% and 250% of pre-industrial levels, before 1750.

Owing to the importance of monitoring methane, SRON's and GHGSat's research teams have been working since early-2019 to detect methane hotspots. This document is subject to copyright. EUREKALERT 18/08/20 Alternative cooling strategies could mitigate COVID-19 and climate change. When most people think of cooling, they automatically imagine air conditioning (AC), or cooling the air in a room.

EUREKALERT 18/08/20 Alternative cooling strategies could mitigate COVID-19 and climate change

But, there is a much more efficient way to cool people, using your body's radiation. To demonstrate the effect of radiant cooling, Forrest Meggers, assistant professor of architecture and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, and a team of researchers built a "Cold Tube," in Singapore last year. It was an outdoor pavilion lined with novel insulated radiant panels that held cold water pipes inside. Because your body is constantly exchanging radiation with objects around you, and radiation flows from hot to cool surfaces, the participants who walked through the exhibit shed their radiation toward the panels, similar to what would happen if you stood near a freezer.

The participants reported feeling cool, despite the air itself having temperature and humidity levels that would ordinarily feel sweltering. In this Q&A, Meggers and first author of the paper, Dr. INSIDECLIMATENEWS 07/07/20 Think Covid-19 Disrupted the Food Chain? Wait and See What Climate Change Will Do. In the months since Covid-19 convulsed the globe, the world's food system has undergone a stress test—and largely failed it.

INSIDECLIMATENEWS 07/07/20 Think Covid-19 Disrupted the Food Chain? Wait and See What Climate Change Will Do

The pandemic disrupted global supply chains, induced panic buying and cleared supermarket shelves. It left perfectly edible produce rotting in fields, and left farmers no choice but to gas, shoot and bury their livestock because slaughter plants were shut down. It also revealed a glaring problem: Though researchers have known for decades that climate change will roil farming and food systems, there exists no clear global strategy for building resilience and managing risks in the world's food supply, nor a coherent way to tackle the challenge of feeding a growing global population, on a warming planet where food crises are projected to intensify. "We need to make sure food is safe, nutritious and sustainable, not just for today but for the future," said Emily Broad Leib, director of the Harvard Law School Food Law and Policy Clinic. ACADEMIE NATIONALE DE MEDECINE 25/05/20 Que déduire des études évaluant l’effet du climat sur la Covid-19 ?

Télécharger le communiqué (PDF) Télécharger la version anglaise (PDF) Que déduire des études évaluant l’effet du climat sur la Covid-19 ? Communiqué de l’Académie nationale de médecine 25 mai 2020 Survenue au milieu de l’hiver, l’épidémie de Covid-19 sera-t-elle freinée par la saison estivale, à l’exemple de la grippe ou d’autres coronaviroses ? Afin de confirmer ces données, une enquête (soumise pour publication) a été réalisée sous l’égide de l’Académie nationale de médecine à partir d’un réseau de 19 médecins, pharmaciens et cadres de santé exerçant en zone tempérée (France et Italie), en zone africaine intertropicale (Sénégal, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Mali, Togo, Gabon) et dans les DOM/TOM (Guadeloupe, Martinique, La Réunion, Mayotte, St Martin, St Barthélémy, Nouvelle Calédonie).

USBEK & RICA 14/03/20 5 pistes pour mobiliser sur le climat autant que sur le coronavirus. Face à la pandémie de coronavirus, des mesures radicales sont prises, bouleversant nos vies quotidiennes et heurtant nos intérêts économiques. L'union sacrée est réclamée par le président de la République. Exactement le type de réactions que nous devrions avoir également en urgence face à la crise écologique… « Sans pousser l’analogie trop loin, on voit bien avec l’actuelle crise sanitaire liée au coronavirus la capacité des gouvernements à agir dans l’urgence pour l’intérêt général. […] Une réponse rapide est coordonnée à l’international, soutenue par les individus et les entreprises. La communication est continue. Des sommes importantes sont débloquées au niveau national ou européen pour aider les entreprises à passer le cap.

RADIO CANADA 19/04/20 LES ANNEES LUMIERE - Super-propagateurs, virus et climat. ONU 27/04/20 L’ONU invite à inclure l’urgence climatique dans les plans post-COVID-19. NATURE 13/04/20 How COVID-19 could ruin weather forecasts and climate records - As climate- and ecological-monitoring projects go dark, data that stretch back for decades will soon contain coronavirus-associated gaps. Twice per year, Ed Dever’s group at Oregon State University in Corvallis heads out to sea off the Oregon and Washington coasts to refurbish and clean more than 100 delicate sensors that make up one segment of a US$44-million-per-year scientific network called the Ocean Observatories Initiative.

“If this had been a normal year, I would have been at sea right now,” he says. Instead, Dever is one of many scientists sidelined by the coronavirus pandemic, watching from afar as precious field data disappear and instruments degrade. The scientific pause could imperil weather forecasts in the near term, and threaten long-standing climate studies.

In some cases, researchers are expecting gaps in data that have been collected regularly for decades. “The break in the scientific record is probably unprecedented,” says Frank Davis, an ecologist at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Weather forecasting takes a hit Other monitoring programmes are facing similar gaps. Maintenance woes. LE MONDE 24/04/20 Edouard Bard : « La pandémie de Covid-19 préfigure en accéléré la propagation du réchauffement climatique » Tribune. La pandémie de Covid-19 n’est sans doute pas d’origine climatique, même si nous n’avons pas encore de certitude sur les éventuels changements environnementaux qui auraient pu rapprocher les populations des animaux hôtes (chauve-souris et pangolin) de l’homme.

Néanmoins, l’épidémie en cours donne à réfléchir aux climatologues, car elle préfigure en accéléré la propagation du réchauffement mondial prévu pour les prochaines décennies. LE MONDE 17/05/20 Le coronavirus sort-il d’un laboratoire ? Episode 1 : la thèse du virus artificiel. FRANCE INFO VIA YOUTUBE 30/04/20 La climatologue Valérie Masson-Delmotte dessine l'après-coronavirus.

Developpement-durable_gouv_fr - MAI 2020 - Savoirs pour l'action. Spécial COVID-19. (concerne notamment l'impact sur le changement climatique) ACADEMIE NATIONALE DE MEDECINE 16/05/20 Communiqué de l’Académie nationale de médecine : Enquêtes autour des cas de Covid-19 et utilisation des tests sérologiques. Télécharger le communiqué (PDF) Télécharger la version anglaise (PDF) ABC_NET_AU 01/05/20 Q fever cases drop this year and could be COVID-19, climate change and cattle number related.