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OGM au Royaume-Uni

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ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 01/02/17 Rothamsted Research is granted permission by Defra to carry out field trial with GM wheat plants. Rothamsted Research, which receives strategic funding from BBSRC, submitted an application on 3rd November 2016 to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) for permission to carry out GM field trials on the Rothamsted Farm between 2017 and 2019.

ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 01/02/17 Rothamsted Research is granted permission by Defra to carry out field trial with GM wheat plants

The risk assessment was reviewed by the independent Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (ACRE), and a 48-day public consultation was carried out by Defra. ACRE is satisfied that all scientific issues raised by the public with respect to this application have been addressed. During this period and in addition to the formal consultation run by ACRE, Rothamsted Scientists have also spoken to and answered questions directly from the public, and special interest groups that have been interested in the research project and the trial. Ensuring food security is a major challenge given the projected need to increase world food production by 40% in the next 20 years and 70% by 2050. Animal and Plant Health Agency 10/05/16 GM Inspectorate annual report.

BBSRC - JULY 2008 - BBSRC’s position on GM research in crops and other plants. BBSRC invests in biotechnology research.

BBSRC - JULY 2008 - BBSRC’s position on GM research in crops and other plants

This briefing outlines our approach to and position on these technologies. Genetic modification Genetic modification (GM) tools and techniques are used to change the genetic code of plants, animals or microbes. BBSRC invests in research that uses GM for two broad purposes. A large part of the research is aimed at uncovering fundamental understanding about the biology of living organisms. Synthetic biology.

Références DEFRA concernant les OGM

ROTHAMSTED_AC_UK 07/07/15 The first GM oilseed crop to produce omega-3 fish oils in the field. In a landmark paper published today in the journal Metabolic Engineering Communications, scientists at Rothamsted Research have announced the first year results of the field-scale trial of Camelina oilseed plants genetically engineered to make omega-3 fish oils in their seeds.

ROTHAMSTED_AC_UK 07/07/15 The first GM oilseed crop to produce omega-3 fish oils in the field

Omega-3 fish oils specifically long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are acknowledged by the medical community to be beneficial components of the human diet. The primary dietary sources of EPA & DHA are marine fish, either wild or farmed (aquaculture). Although some types of omega-3 fats are available from other sources in the human diet (such as flax seeds), the nutritionally-beneficial omega- 3 LC- PUFA EPA & DHA are only available from marine sources. Fish, like humans, accumulate the omega-3 fish oils by feeding on other organisms in the marine food chain or, in the case of farmed fish, through fishmeal and fish oil in feed.

ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 25/06/15 Rothamsted GM Wheat Trial. Is the trial safe?

ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 25/06/15 Rothamsted GM Wheat Trial

Thorough risk assessments of this field trial were carried out by the Rothamsted GM Safety Committee and no major safety concern were raised. Following this, the Government's ACRE (the Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment) said it was "satisfied that all appropriate measures have been taken to avoid adverse effects to human health and the environment from the proposed release" in September 2011, which received coverage through local and national news channels.

ACRE is a statutory advisory committee appointed under section 124 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (the EPA) to provide advice to government regarding the release and marketing of genetically modified organisms (www.defra.gov.uk/acre/). As part of the ACRE process, there was a 60 day public consultation period 20th June to 19th Aug 2011, with input from organisations, e.g. Can the genes move into surrounding areas? Might animals eat the seeds?

What is the impact on natural aphid predators? ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH - Rothamsted Research submits application to Defra for permission to carry out field trial with GM Camelina plants. Rothamsted Research has submitted an application to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) for permission to carry out a GM field trial on the Rothamsted Farm in 2016 and 2017.

ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH - Rothamsted Research submits application to Defra for permission to carry out field trial with GM Camelina plants

Scientists at Rothamsted Research, who receive strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), have previously trialed in the field Camelina plants that accumulate omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in their seeds. In addition they have developed plants that can also accumulate astaxanthin, a pigment that is commonly used as a feed additive in aquaculture. The purpose of the proposed trial is to evaluate in the field the performance of the novel traits combined and individually. The proposed trial is part of the ongoing strategic programme of research at Rothamsted. Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant properties and is used as a feed additive in fish farming. BBSRC 25/04/16 Rothamsted Research granted consent for field trial of GM camelina. Rothamsted Research has received consent from Defra to go ahead with a field trial of genetically modified camelina plants on the Rothamsted Farm in 2016 and 2017.

BBSRC 25/04/16 Rothamsted Research granted consent for field trial of GM camelina

The trial is part of a research project by Rothamsted scientists that is supported by strategic funding from BBSRC. GM-INSPECTORATE_GOV_UK - AVRIL 2014 - Bulletin Seed monitoring news - PCR testing seed for GM presence. GOV_UK 08/05/15 2010 to 2015 government policy: food and farming industry. Issue The farming, food and drink sector is responsible for 3.5 million jobs and 7% of the UK’s overall economy.

GOV_UK 08/05/15 2010 to 2015 government policy: food and farming industry

Making this sector more productive and competitive, particularly by increasing exports, will help economic growth. We need to produce more food, not just for economic growth but also to feed the growing world population. We also need to get better at producing food in efficient ways. Animal and Plant Health Agency 10/05/16 GM Inspectorate annual report. HSE 27/10/09 Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - The Public Register. THE ROYAL SOCIETY 22/02/03 A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit. FAS USDA 05/08/15 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_London_United Kingdom_7-16-2015.

Références du Parlement du Royaume-Uni concernant les OGM

Etiquetage et OGM au Royaume-Uni. University of Florida - 2002 - Thèse en ligne : ANALYSIS OF US AND BRITISH MEDIA COVERAGE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 1993-2003. FAS USDA 27/05/13 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_London_United Kingdom_4-22-2013. FAS USDA 23/01/15 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_London_United Kingdom_12-8-2014. THE TELEGRAPH 05/08/14 First GM crops enriched with nutrients ready for harvest Genetically modified plants which contain health boosting Omega-3 have been created by British scientists and will be harvested with weeks. “It is only a small trial but it's a major step forward,” said Professor Jonathan Napier at Rothamsted Research in Hertfordshire where the crop has been growing for the past three months.

THE TELEGRAPH 05/08/14 First GM crops enriched with nutrients ready for harvest Genetically modified plants which contain health boosting Omega-3 have been created by British scientists and will be harvested with weeks

“Fish get fish oil from their diet when they swim in the sea but when you put them in a cage they can't do that and you have to feed them smaller fish, otherwise fish would have no more Omega-3 in them than chicken. “The problem is that there aren’t plenty of fish in the sea. One million tons of fish oil is removed from the seas every year and most of that goes into fish farming through fishmeal. It’s unsustainable. “So this would eventually be used to make farmed fish healthier. Omega-3 fatty acids have been widely linked to health benefits, such as lowering the risk of heart disease, cancers and neuro-degenerative diseases. Although it is often described as fish oil, Omega-3 is in fact made by microscopic marine algae that are eaten or absorbed by fish.

RSC 27/02/15 Traits not technology should govern EU GM laws, MPs say. A UK government committee is calling for changes to EU rules on genetically modified crops © Shutterstock UK MPs are calling for a shake-up of EU rules governing genetically modified crops.

RSC 27/02/15 Traits not technology should govern EU GM laws, MPs say

The regulatory process, which is fundamentally flawed and not fit for purpose, has driven research out of the EU and put the UK’s agricultural future at risk, they claim. ‘Unfortunately, the way the EU’s regulatory system works means that countries opposed to genetically modified crops can block their growth in other countries,’ says Andrew Miller MP, chair of the House of Commons science and technology committee. ‘This has put at risk the UK’s ability to be a global player in advancing agricultural technology.’ The report identifies three major flaws in the EU regulatory regime. ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 15/04/14 Rothamsted Research is granted permission by Defra to carry out a field trial with GM Camelina plants.

Rothamsted Research submitted an application in late January 2014 to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs for permission to carry out a GM field trial on the Rothamsted Farm in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017.

ROTHAMSTED RESEARCH 15/04/14 Rothamsted Research is granted permission by Defra to carry out a field trial with GM Camelina plants

The risk assessment was reviewed by the independent Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (ACRE), and a 60-day public consultation was carried out by Defra. ACRE is satisfied that all scientific issues raised by the public with respect to this application have been addressed. PRESS AND JOURNAL 28/02/15 UK farmers need access to GM crops, says Defra Secretary. UK farmers should be allowed to use genetically-modified crop technology to help them increase food production, according to Defra minister Liz Truss. Ms Truss said GM crops offered a real opportunity for UK farmers and that producers should be given the same access to scientific developments as those in other countries.

Speaking at the NFU conference in Birmingham on Tuesday (24 February), Ms Truss said she was pleased that MPs in Europe had agreed to allow member states to decide for themselves whether GM crops could be grown commercially. But she said she would like member states to have the freedom to make more choices over which technologies they could use. “Europe needs to embrace scientific advances and I am pleased the need for greater national discretion in GM has been accepted,” she told delegates. “The new agreement to have more discretion at a member state level, I would like that to go further.” LOC_GOV 27/02/15 Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: England and Wales.

The growth and sale of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are permitted in England and Wales, subject to an intensive authorization process that occurs primarily at the European Union (EU) level. Most legislation in England and Wales that applies to GMOs is implementing legislation for EU law. The general attitude in England is averse to genetically modified (GM) products; however, a slight shift in attitude towards GM products has recently been reported, and the UK government’s policy indicates a more receptive attitude towards these products.

I. Introduction The UK is generally viewed as having a restrictive approach towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and crops; however, recently there appears to have been a slow shift toward greater acceptance of them.[1] Genetically modified (GM) crops are currently not grown commercially in the UK, but they are imported. HSE_GOV_UK - 2014 - GMOs and the law. The primary piece of legislation that applies to the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the workplace is the Genetically Modified Organisms (Contained Use) Regulations 2014 (‘the GMO(CU) Regulations’). The GMO(CU) Regulations provide for human health and safety and environmental protection from genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) in contained use, and human health and safety from genetically modified plants and animals. The key requirement of the GMO(CU) Regulations is to assess the risks of all contained uses and to ensure the sure that any necessary controls are put in place. The GMO(CU) Regulations provide a framework for making these judgments, and place clear legal obligations on people who work with GMOs.

Le site GM INSPECTORATE_GOV_UK. FSA - GM and novel food research. CLA_ORG_UK - JUIN 2013 - FUTURE FARMING: CLA POLICY ON BIOTECHNOLOGY. BEYOND GM 05/01/15 UK government preparing the ground for GM crops. January 5, 2015 by Lawrence Woodward UK minsters are not expecting commercial planting of GMO crops in this country “for at least a few years” but will ease their way by ensuring that “pragmatic” regulations are put in place.

In a letter to Beyond GM, Defra (Department for Environment and Rural Affairs) junior minster Lord de Mauley, confirmed that: “We do not expect any commercial planting of GM crops in the UK for at least a few years as no GM crops in the EU approval pipeline are of major interest to UK farmers Lord de Mauley’s letter was in response to the Beyond GM initiative The Letter from America which was delivered to the Prime Minister’s office in November, and which also appeared as a full page advertisement in the Times, as well as being trailed on a huge digital billboard at London Waterloo, the UK’s busiest rail station. “Pragmatic” = weak and serving industry interests. RAPPORT OAV - United Kingdom 2014-7209 Genetically modified organisms Sep 2014.

DEFRA - AVRIL 2011 - GM POLICY AND REGULATION EVIDENCE PLAN 2011/12. GOV_UK 20/05/13 Genetically Modified Organisms: applications and consents. University of Florida - 2002 - Thèse en ligne : ANALYSIS OF US AND BRITISH MEDIA COVERAGE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD 1993-2003. Future%20Farming%20CLA%20biotechnology. FAS USDA 27/05/13 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual_London_United Kingdom_4-22-2013. FSA 13/08/09 FSA and Defra GM reports published.

FSA 25/11/09 Report exploring attitudes to GM food published. FSA – GM foods. The Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP) is a non-statutory, independent body of scientific experts that advises the Food Standards Agency on any matters relating to novel foods, which includes GM foods, and novel processes. The ACNFP, which carries out safety assessments of any novel food or process submitted for approval, still has a role in advising the Agency on GM foods, although the approval of such foods no longer falls under the Novel Foods Regulation. Until April 2004, the scope of the ‘Novel Foods Regulation’ (Novel Food Regulation (EC) 258/97) included all foods produced using genetically modified organisms but GM foods are currently subject to approval under a separate regulation, Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003.

See both regulations on the European Commission website via the links below. The safety assessments of GM foods are carried out by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which sometimes consults the Agency. United Kingdom 2003-9249 Foods consisting of or produced from Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Oct 2003 Report details. United Kingdom 2006-8116 GMO - Controls on food and feed Jun 2006 Report details.

BBSRC - JUILLET 2011 - BBSRC’s position on research using genetically modified animals. HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT - SEPT 2011 - GM Crops and Food Security.