PLOS 26/01/17 Investments in Research and Surveillance Are Needed to Go Beyond Elimination and Stop Transmission of Leishmania in the Indian Subcontinent. Citation: Olliaro PL, Shamsuzzaman TAKM, Marasini B, Dhariwal AC, Be-Nazir A, Mondal D, et al. (2017) Investments in Research and Surveillance Are Needed to Go Beyond Elimination and Stop Transmission of Leishmania in the Indian Subcontinent.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(1): e0005190. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005190 Editor: Diana N. J. Lockwood, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UNITED KINGDOM Published: January 26, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Olliaro et al. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Progress towards the elimination of a neglected tropical disease from a country can sometimes be a curse, especially when policymakers are confronted with competing needs and priorities. This is the challenge countries in the Indian subcontinent are currently facing. However, this does not mean that the game is over. PLOS 02/03/15 Arsenic Exposure and Outcomes of Antimonial Treatment in Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients in Bihar, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Abstract Background In the late twentieth century, emergence of high rates of treatment failure with antimonial compounds (SSG) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused a public health crisis in Bihar, India.
We hypothesize that exposure to arsenic through drinking contaminated groundwater may be associated with SSG treatment failure due to the development of antimony-resistant parasites. Methods A retrospective cohort design was employed, as antimony treatment is no longer in routine use. Results One hundred and ten VL patients treated with SSG were analysed. Discussion/Conclusion This study indicates a trend towards increased treatment failure in arsenic exposed patients. Author Summary The parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes a significant burden of illness and death in India. Tropical Medicine & International Health Volume 15, Issue 1, pages 60–67, January 2010 Determinants of bednet ownership and use in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas of the Indian subcontinent. Summary Objective To document ownership and use of bednets with its determinants in the visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic region where mainly non-insecticide impregnated nets are available through commercial channels, and bednets are being considered as a leishmaniasis vector control measure.
Methods In August–September 2006, semi-structured household (HH) questionnaires and observation guides were used in a random sample of 1330 HHs in VL-endemic districts of India and Nepal to collect data on VL knowledge, HH socio-economic status, bednet ownership and use patterns. An asset index was constructed to allow wealth ranking of the HH. A binary logistic response General Estimating Equations model was fitted to evaluate the determinants of bednet ownership and use. Results The proportion of HHs with at least one bednet purchased on the commercial market was 81.5% in India and 70.2% in Nepal. Introduction Results Figure 1. Download figure to PowerPoint Discussion. Tropical Medicine & International Health Volume 15, Issue Supplement s2, pages 29–35, July 2010 Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis in India: further evidence on the role of domestic animals. PLOS 29/11/11 Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian Subcontinent: Modelling Epidemiology and Control.
Abstract Background In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL).
In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies.
Methods and Findings Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project). Conclusions Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. Author Summary Figures Editor: Alison P. Copyright: © 2011 Stauch et al. Introduction Disease Diagnostics. Journal of Tropical Medicine Volume 2011 (2011), Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results.
CDC EID – OCT 2012 – Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India. Author affiliations: Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (E.
Hasker, A. Picado, J. Menten, M. Boelaert); and Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India (S.P. Singh, P. Suggested citation for this article Abstract To identify factors associated with incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we surveyed 13,416 households in Bihar State, India. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by several Leishmania spp., is nearly always fatal if left untreated (1,2).
Earlier studies on the Indian subcontinent have identified several risk factors for VL (5–11). The study area is a geographically continuous area comprising 50 villages in the Muzaffarpur District of Bihar State, India, a district where VL is highly endemic. Tropical Medicine & International Health Volume 15, Issue Supplement s2, pages 50–54, July 2010 Household cost-of-illness of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR) - 2012 - The burden of visceral leishmaniasis in India: Challenges in using remote sensing and GIS to understand and control.