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Le plomb de chasse

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ACTU ENVIRONNEMENT 28/01/21 Les munitions au plomb interdites dans les zones humides de l'Union européenne. La présidente de la Commission européenne a signé le 25 janvier le règlement qui interdit l'utilisation de la grenaille de plomb dans les zones humides et à moins de 100 mètres de celles-ci.

ACTU ENVIRONNEMENT 28/01/21 Les munitions au plomb interdites dans les zones humides de l'Union européenne

Cette interdiction, qui prendra effet en février 2023, est prise par le biais d'une mesure de restriction au titre du règlement Reach. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-001331/2020 Compétence de la Commission en matière d’interdiction du plomb pour les munitions de chasse et de tir. THE GUARDIAN 24/02/20 UK hunting groups call for end to use of lead ammunition by 2025.

Lead ammunition used to shoot animals should be phased out and replaced with non-toxic alternatives by 2025, hunting organisations have said amid calls for a ban to be enshrined in law.

THE GUARDIAN 24/02/20 UK hunting groups call for end to use of lead ammunition by 2025

Global scientific consensus on the risks of lead ammunition has long been established and regularly eating game birds shot with the highly toxic metal can harm the developing brain and damage the nervous system, and children and pregnant women are most vulnerable. More than 6,000 tonnes of lead ammunition is discharged by guns every year, with up to 100,000 swans, ducks, geese and other wildfowl in Britain estimated to be killed after accidentally ingesting poisonous shot pellets. “The shooting community must maintain its place at the forefront of conservation and environmental protection,” nine pro-shooting groups said in a joint statement issued by the British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC). SCIENDO 06/09/18 Еpidemiological Data on Lead Tissue Concentration in Game Birds Induced by Lead Pellets.

Science of The Total Environment Volume 714, 20 April 2020, Toxic lead gunshot persists accessible to waterbirds after a 33-year ban on their use. Science of The Total Environment Volume 654, 1 March 2019, Pages 409-417 What do we know about lead contamination in wild vultures and condors? A review of decades of research. Science of The Total Environment Volume 376, Issues 1–3, 15 April 2007, Lead contamination and associated disease in captive and reintroduced red kites Milvus milvus in England.

PHYS_ORG 15/04/19 Lead ammunition polluting Argentina. Pollution from lead ammunition causes environmental health problems in Argentina, and progress is underway to find viable replacements for lead shot, according to an overview of lead pollution from hunting in the country.

PHYS_ORG 15/04/19 Lead ammunition polluting Argentina

Argentina's pioneering awareness and attention to this problem may help others address this global health issue that threatens humans, animals and landscapes. The report, compiled by the University of California, Davis' One Health Institute and Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires in Argentina, was published April 12 in the journal Ambio. "Lead pollution is one of the very few environmental problems for which there is a simple solution: Switch from lead to nontoxic ammunition," said lead author Marcela Uhart, a wildlife veterinarian with the UC Davis One Health Institute and director of the Latin America Program within UC Davis' Karen C.

Drayer Wildlife Health Center. "We're not saying 'Don't hunt.' PEOPLE AND NATURE 03/06/19 Perspectives of ammunition users on the use of lead ammunition and its potential impacts on wildlife and humans. There is international recognition of the risks presented by lead to the health of humans and wildlife (Arnemo et al., 2016; Green & Pain, 2015; Pain, Cromie, & Green, 2015; Stroud, 2015).

PEOPLE AND NATURE 03/06/19 Perspectives of ammunition users on the use of lead ammunition and its potential impacts on wildlife and humans

Following regulation to remove lead in the environment from other sources such as paint and petrol (Stroud, 2015), recent policies have aimed to reduce the exposure of humans and wildlife to lead from ammunition (IUCN, 2016; Stroud, 2015; UNEP‐CMS, 2014). Over the last 50 years, lead ammunition (primarily shot) has been subject to legislative and other forms of regulation in 33 countries world‐wide (Kanstrup, 2019; Kanstrup, Swift, Stroud, & Lewis, 2018; Stroud, 2015).

Currently, two countries have total bans on the use, trade and possession of lead shot: Denmark introduced legislation in 1996 (Kanstrup, 2006) and the Netherlands in 1993 (Avery & Watson, 2009). PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-002293-19 Ban on lead shot bullets in wetland areas. NPS_GOV 24/09/19 Lead Bullet Risks for Wildlife & Humans. Numerous scientific studies have reached a consensus: lead poisoning is the biggest threat facing the successful recovery of the California condor.

NPS_GOV 24/09/19 Lead Bullet Risks for Wildlife & Humans

Semi-annual test results show that the majority of free-flying condors at Pinnacles National Park have blood lead levels that exceed 10 ug/dL (micrograms per deciliter), which is the same threshold used by the Center for Disease Control as an initial warning sign that a human child is at risk. Some condors have been measured with blood lead levels higher than 800 ug/dL, a value that would potentially kill a human. By the time condors at Pinnacles reach breeding age of 7 years old, almost all of them have received emergency, life-saving chelation treatment at least once. Numerous condors in the flock have now required multiple chelation cycles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), Hunting, Sale, and Consumption of Bushmeat Killed by Lead-Based Ammunition in Benin.

Human consumption of animal meat killed by lead ammunition has been reported as a risk factor for elevated blood lead levels.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), Hunting, Sale, and Consumption of Bushmeat Killed by Lead-Based Ammunition in Benin

However, little is known about how meat killed by lead ammunition is hunted, prepared, sold, and consumed. We explored the process from hunting to consumption within communities in Benin from the perspective of preventive measures. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with hunters (n = 9) and sellers (n = 8) of bushmeat and families (n = 21) as consumers of bushmeat killed by lead ammunition.

Data were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. We conducted content analysis to identify and describe key themes and processes from hunting to consumption. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ECHA 04/11/19 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON THE CALL FOR EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION ON THE USE OF LEAD IN GUNSHOT OUTSIDE OF WETLANDS, BULLETS IN ANY TERRAIN AND IN FISHING TACKLE.

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18/06/19 Lead and Other Trace Elements in Danish Birds of Prey. Lead Lead from hunting ammunition constitutes a risk for poisoning for a wide range of animal species including predators and scavengers.

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18/06/19 Lead and Other Trace Elements in Danish Birds of Prey

The relationship is well documented. In 57 white-tailed eagles collected as dead or dying in Germany and Austria, Kenntner et al. (2001) found a mean of 7 ppm lead and a max value of 62 ppm lead and concluded that 28% of the white-tailed eagles had liver lead concentration that could cause acute fatal poisoning (> 15 ppm). The corresponding figure for white-tailed eagles in Poland is 32% (Kitowski et al. 2017) and in Sweden, 12.5% (Helander et al. 2009) and for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in two Great Lakes states, 30% (Nam et al. 2012). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 16/07/19 Temporal Changes in Concentrations of Lead and Other Trace Metals in Free-Ranging Eurasian Eagle Owls Bubo bubo in Sweden.

AMBIO 18/07/19 Transition to lead-free ammunition benefits all. AMBIO 16/05/19 Risks to human health from ammunition-derived lead in Europe. AMBIO 16/03/19 Wildlife, human and environmental costs of using lead ammunition: An economic review and analysis. Costs associated with impacts on wildlife Lead poisoning from ammunition sources affects a wide range of different species, but most research has involved birds.

AMBIO 16/03/19 Wildlife, human and environmental costs of using lead ammunition: An economic review and analysis

This has been reviewed by numerous authors, updated by Pain et al. (2019). Wildfowl (ducks, geese and swans) ingest spent lead gunshot while feeding, mistakenly for food items or the grit that they deliberately ingest and retain in a muscular part of their stomach, the gizzard, to help break down their food. Other birds that directly ingest spent gunshot include other waterbird species (e.g. cranes and flamingos) and terrestrial birds including gamebirds like partridges and pheasants, pigeons and doves. Another route of exposure occurs in predatory of scavenging birds, whose food includes species that are shot as pests or for food or sport.

The costs to society of sublethal poisoning and mortality of wildlife are difficult to evaluate, but the question can be approached in a variety of ways. A. Replacement costs Treatment costs. AMBIO 16/03/19 Effects of lead from ammunition on birds and other wildlife: A review and update. AMBIO 09/04/19 Lead pollution from hunting ammunition in Argentina and current state of lead shot replacement efforts. CHASSE38_COM 19/03/19 Pollution des venaisons par le plomb : mythe ou réalité ? 30 MILLIONS D AMIS 25/02/20 Des millions d’oiseaux empoisonnés par les plombs de chasse. En France, 8 000 tonnes de plomb sont déversées chaque année dans la nature par les chasseurs.

30 MILLIONS D AMIS 25/02/20 Des millions d’oiseaux empoisonnés par les plombs de chasse

Toxique pour l’environnement, ce métal l’est tout autant pour la faune qui l’habite. 30millionsdamis.fr revient sur ce fléau qui ne pourra être combattu qu’au prix d’une volonté politique affirmée. Le saturnisme [intoxication au plomb] tue 1 à 2 millions d’oiseaux chaque année en France ! Comme l’a récemment rappelé Libération (19/02/2020), le plomb présent dans les cartouches de fusils se répand dans la nature, les sols, les cours d’eau… Les animaux en sont aussi les premières victimes : « Personne n'y échappe, qu'il s'agisse de petits ou de grands animaux », déplore Pascal Orabi, Chef de missions à la Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux (LPO). Des symptômes douloureux susceptibles d’entrainer la mort.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-002293-19 Ban on lead shot bullets in wetland areas. LIBERATION 14/02/19 Chasse : le plomb, un poison pour l'homme et l'environnement. Tous les jours, retrouvez le fil vert, le rendez-vous environnement de Libération.

LIBERATION 14/02/19 Chasse : le plomb, un poison pour l'homme et l'environnement

Aujourd’hui, le green graph. Il se répand dans la nature, les sols et les cours d'eau. Dans la carcasse des animaux et même chez l'homme. Le plomb est un poison sournois, déversé à hauteur de 8 000 tonnes chaque année en France par les adeptes de la chasse et du ball-trap, chiffre relayé par l’Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) et environ 21 000 tonnes dans toute l'Union européenne (14 000 dans les zones terrestres et 7 000 pour les zones humides), selon un rapport de l’Agence européenne des produits chimiques (Echa), ici à partir des données 2012 du bureau d'études Amec.

C'est sans compter les amateurs de tir sportif qui consomment à eux seuls environ 10 000 à 20 000 tonnes de plomb par an toujours dans l'UE, et les pêcheurs au plomb qui en répandent entre 2 000 et 6 000 tonnes dans la même zone, selon l'Echa. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005769-18 Munitions en plomb. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question E-005777-18 Pollution from hunting ammunition (lead) in Galicia's natural parks. Propellants Explos. Pyrotech. 2018, 43, 228–233 Metallic Fumes at Indoor Military Shooting Ranges: Lead, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc in Different Fractions of Airborne Particulate Matter. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation Available online 16 August 2018 A review of lead contamination in South American birds: The need for more research and policy changes. Álvarez-Lloret et al., 2014 P. Álvarez-Lloret, A.B.

Rodríguez-Navarro, C.S. Romanek, P. Ferrandis, M. Sci. Anderson et al., 2000 W.L. J. PLOS 21/09/17 Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition – implications for consumer health protection. Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project “Safety of game meat obtained through hunting” (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition.

The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals.

Editor: Antoni Margalida, University of Lleida, SPAIN Introduction Results. BMC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 04/04/17 Lead exposure at firing ranges—a review. Most attention in the area of human health and guns has been rightly placed on shooting injuries and deaths [1]. However, decades of evidence indicate that substantial health risks are incurred by the shooters themselves in the form of lead exposure and subsequent poisoning. Indeed, as pointed out as early as 1994 by Ozonoff, based on high blood lead levels (BLLs) of shooters, “…firing ranges comprise one of the largest unregulated sources of occupational or para-occupational lead exposure for adults.

The perils of firearms exist at both ends of the barrel.” [2]. The past two decades have brought substantial improvements in firing range environmental oversight as well as analytical capabilities to detect lead in humans, but literature evidence indicates that we fall far short of human health safety criteria in firing ranges of all types, and among occupational and recreational shooters. Shooting statistics. PHYS_ORG 14/03/18 Big game hunters in Africa urged to drop the lead to help save vultures. A third of all vultures caught and tested in the Botswana study showed elevated levels of lead in their blood, most likely due to ingesting lead bullet-contaminated flesh. Hunters' bullets shatter inside their prey and can then be absorbed into the blood stream of the vultures when they feed on these animals or their remains. This ingested lead is highly toxic to birds. "We were all shocked by how widespread lead poisoning was for this population and just how clearly these elevated levels were associated with recreational hunting activity", said Dr Arjun Amar, Associate Professor from the University of Cape Town's FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, who supervised the research.

The study, published this week in the international journal Science of the Total Environment, is based on tests of nearly 600 critically endangered African White-backed Vultures. The four-year study was conducted jointly with Raptors Botswana, a conservation NGO. KNOWL MANAG AQUAT ECOSYST 09/04/18 Leaching behavior and ecotoxicological effects of different game shot materials in freshwater. Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 2018, 419, 24 Research Paper Comportement de lixiviation et effets écotoxicologiques des différents matériaux de la grenaille de tir en eau douce Julian Fäth1,a, Mona Feiner2,a, Sebastian Beggel2, Jürgen Geist2* and Axel Göttlein1 1 Technical University of Munich, School of Life Sciences, Professorship of Forest Nutrition and Water Resources, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany 2 Technical University of Munich, School of Life Sciences, Chair of Aquatic Systems Biology, Mühlenweg 22, 85354 Freising, Germany * Corresponding author: geist@wzw.tum.de Abstract.

PHYS_ORG 18/05/18 Alternatives to lead hunting shot pose their own hazards. Hunting with lead shot is highly restricted or entirely banned in many countries due to the danger of poisoning birds and environment. However, alternative ammunition is not without its own risks, as was discovered in a study conducted by a team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich. Due to its ballistic properties, lead shot has been regarded as the optimal ammunition for hunting waterfowl. But it causes lead poisoning in ducks and sea eagles that ingested the shot during bottom feeding, respectively with their prey.

Ammunition manufacturers now offer a range of alternative hunting shot containing iron, copper, zinc, tungsten or bismuth as the primary declared component. A team of researchers at the TU Munich led by Prof. PHYS_ORG 25/05/17 20 million birds and other animals die annually after ingesting lead left behind by hunters. In March, conservationists cried foul when new U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke overturned an Obama-administration ban on using lead ammunition or fishing tackle on federal lands. Lead is toxic to the neurological systems of animals that ingest it, killing millions each year. Though lead's poisonous effects on wildlife have been known for more than a century, eliminating it from nature continues to be an uphill battle.

Mark Pokras, V84, an associate professor emeritus of infectious disease and global health at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, conducted research on lead poisoning in loons that led to several state bans on lead fishing tackle. He talked with Tufts Now about the rollback of protections at the federal level, and what it means for wildlife. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences - 2018 - Hunting with lead ammunition is not sustainable: European perspectives. BFR 19/03/13 Lead ammunition results in higher lead concentrations in game meat.

FUTURA SCIENCES - OCT 2018 - Chasse : pourquoi les chasseurs utilisent des munitions au plomb ? Le plomb est toxique pour l'environnement et la santé. Mais si les chasseurs y ont recours pour leurs balles, c'est parce que les alternatives présentent des inconvénients tout aussi dangereux. Chaque année, en Europe, 21.000 tonnes de plomb sont utilisées par les chasseurs, selon une étude de l'Agence européenne des produits chimiques (ECHA). Du plomb perdu dans la nature qui serait responsable de la mort d'un à deux millions d'oiseaux par an, soit par ingestion directe, soit par contamination secondaire pour les rapaces. L'étude met aussi en garde contre la possible contamination du gibier, lors de la consommation humaine : « Les fragments de plomb se dispersent largement dans les tissus et enlever la chair autour de la blessure ne suffit pas à ôter tout le plomb qui pourrait être absorbé par le consommateur », écrit l'ECHA.

Des balles plus denses qui limitent le risque d’accident Mais alors, pourquoi utiliser un métal aussi toxique pour la chasse ? LE DAUPHINE 13/09/18 Chasse : les munitions au plomb polluent et menacent notre santé. Chasseurs et défenseurs de l'environnement ne sont pas près de s'entendre. Selon une expertise de l’Agence européenne des produits chimiques (EChA), rendue publique mercredi, 30 000 à 40 000 tonnes de plomb sont utilisées en Europe et dispersées dans notre environnement, polluant la nature et présentant un risque pour la santé humaine, rapporte Le Monde. Selon l'EChA, 21 000 tonnes de plomb utilisées par les chasseurs sont dispersées dans la nature, et 10 000 à 20 000 sur les champs de tir sportif.

LE MONDE 13/09/18 Les munitions au plomb menacent l’environnement et la santé. L’Agence européenne des produits chimiques estime que 30 000 à 40 000 tonnes de plomb sont dispersées dans les écosystèmes par la chasse et le tir sportif LE MONDE | 13.09.2018 à 06h31 • Mis à jour le 13.09.2018 à 14h27 | Par Stéphane Foucart. GEOLOGIE ENVIRONNEMENT PLANIFICATION (CH) 21/08/15 Installations de tir de chasse et de combat - Etat de la pollution, procédure. JO SENAT 04/12/03 Réponse à question N°08604 Pollution par le plomb de chasse. ECOLE NATIONALE VETERINAIRE DE NANTES - 1999 - Thèse en ligne: Effets de l'ingestion de plombs de chasse sur le comportement alimentaire et la condition corporelle du canard colvert (Anas platyrhynchos) CHASSEBOUE - Saturnisme et munitions de substitution. ECOLE PRATIQUE DES HAUTES ETUDES 26/02/06 LE SATURNISME DES OIES CENDRÉES DANS LES MARAIS DU GUADALQUIVIR (Pluralité de l’exposition et aspects méthodologiques) Mémoire EPHE Hugues Lefranc.

MINISTERE DE L ENVIRONNEMENT 05/04/01 SUPPRESSION DE L’UTILISATION DE LA GRENAILLE DE PLOMB DE CHASSE DANS LES ZONES HUMIDES EXPOSANT LES OISEAUX D’EAU AU SATURNISME. UNEP AEWA - Grenaille non toxique - Vers une utilisation durable des ressources en oiseaux d’eau. METEO MEDIA (Canada) 21/01/15 La chasse au gros gibier: munitions toxiques ? Joanie Chartrand Rédactrice - MétéoMédia Mercredi 21 janvier 2015 à 11 h 35 - La chasse est un loisir fort populaire en Amérique du Nord.