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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Nov 2;95(5):1121-1129. Overlap in the Seasonal Infection Patterns of Avian Malaria Parasites and West Nile Virus in Vectors and Hosts. Ecol Evol. 2017 Apr 9;7(10):3507-3519. Aquatic microfauna alter larval food resources and affect development and biomass of West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis vector Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 23, 25 May 2017, Cost effectiveness of a targeted age-based West Nile virus vaccination program.

Open Access Highlights We assessed the cost effectiveness of age based targeting of WNV Vaccination.

Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 23, 25 May 2017, Cost effectiveness of a targeted age-based West Nile virus vaccination program

We compared costs and health outcomes of vaccination versus no vaccination. Seven cohorts, spaced at 10 year intervals, were each followed until 90-years-old. Age-based targeting is more cost-effective than universal vaccination. Most important inputs are WNV Disease incidence, disability weights & vaccine cost. Abstract Background. CELL REPORT 25/04/17 Mosquitoes Transmit Unique West Nile Virus Populations during Each Feeding Episode. Accordingly, we sought to determine how WNV populations expectorated by a single mosquito change through time and how these populations are altered during the course of subsequent avian viremia.

CELL REPORT 25/04/17 Mosquitoes Transmit Unique West Nile Virus Populations during Each Feeding Episode

By temporally sampling mosquito saliva and bird serum and reconstructing virus populations using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we thus describe the dynamics of virus evolution during transmission. Our data suggest that mosquitoes can transmit unique WNV populations during each feeding episode and that mutations that confer fitness advantages may be lost in vivo because of strong genetic drift. In addition, most virus genetic diversity that accumulates during mosquito infection is selectively purified during transmission, leading to preservation of the original consensus amino acid sequence during acute bird infection. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 04/04/17 Mosquito Microbiome Dynamics, a Background for Prevalence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus. Introduction Metazoa harbor diverse microbial communities (microbiota) largely dominated by bacteria (Bordenstein and Theis, 2015; Yadav et al., 2015).

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 04/04/17 Mosquito Microbiome Dynamics, a Background for Prevalence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus

The microbiota modifies the ability of a host to be affected by, and to transmit, pathogens. Thus, understanding the relationship between microbiota and arthropod disease vectors, including mosquitoes, may impact mitigation of emerging infectious diseases (Dennison et al., 2014; Van Treuren et al., 2015). Recently emerging vector-borne diseases have been linked to the introduction of non-native insect vectors and to changing ecological conditions including climate, urbanization, and greater human intrusion into areas where vectors and pathogens prevail (Bonizzoni et al., 2013).

However, it is not known whether vector competence (i.e., the ability to transmit pathogens) is shaped mainly by environmental conditions, genetic background of the insect vector, or by the vector microbiota. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Jun; 5(6): e53. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel. PARASITES & VECTORS 31/08/16 Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.

Mosquito feeding on raptor vs non-raptor birds was investigated in a free-choice experiment under semi-natural conditions.

PARASITES & VECTORS 31/08/16 Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps

A major finding was that C. pipiens, one of the main vectors of arboviral zoonotic diseases [38], fed preferentially on raptors over other birds in the study. Several surveys conducted in North America revealed that raptors constitute a small percentage of total avian blood meals of mosquitoes collected in the field, varying from 0.3 to 3.4 %, as expected for low density hosts on top of the food chains [39, 40, 41, 42].

However, a study of mosquito blood meal analysis at a raptor rehabilitation center in Alabama (USA), reported that more than 58 % of blood meals were from raptors, showing that the frequency of raptor blood meals is clearly influenced by their abundance in the avian community [19]. The results of our experiment suggest that mosquitoes may actually feed upon raptors at higher rates than expected in the case of random feeding on available birds. VIROLOGY JOURNAL - 2016 - Newcastle disease virus-vectored West Nile fever vaccine is immunogenic in mammals and poultry.

WNV is an important zoonotic pathogen widely distributed geographically, with emergence of increasingly neuroevasive strains.

VIROLOGY JOURNAL - 2016 - Newcastle disease virus-vectored West Nile fever vaccine is immunogenic in mammals and poultry

Here, a recombinant NDV LaSota virus expressing WNV PrM and E proteins, rLa-WNV-PrM/E, was constructed as a candidate veterinary vaccine for WNV prevention and control. rLa-WNV-PrM/E elicited significant levels of neutralizing antibodies and WNV-specific T-cell responses in mice, as well as WNV-specific IgG in horses, chickens, ducks, and geese, support the immunogenicity of the newly generated recombinant virus in mammals and poultry. Mice are sensitive to WNV infection, and thus commonly used as the model animal for WNV vaccine evaluation and other related studies. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 01/05/16 West nile virus. CDC EID - Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses.

Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for this journal article, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn CME credit.

CDC EID - Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

This activity has been planned and implemented through the joint providership of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. Medscape, LLC designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

All other clinicians completing this activity will be issued a certificate of participation. Release date: August 10, 2016; Expiration date: August 10, 2017 Learning Objectives CME Editor P. CME Author Charles P. Authors. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 15-0809 Superppression reduces spillover of West Nile Virus. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 20/04/16 Visual Detection of West Nile Virus Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Vertical Flow Visualization Strip. Introduction.

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 20/04/16 Visual Detection of West Nile Virus Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Vertical Flow Visualization Strip

INSERM - JUIN 2015 - Fièvre à virus du Nil occidental. Janvier 2010 (mise à jour juin 2015)

INSERM - JUIN 2015 - Fièvre à virus du Nil occidental.

PLOS 12/05/15 Comparing Competitive Fitness of West Nile Virus Strains in Avian and Mosquito Hosts. Abstract Enzootic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) involves various species of birds and ornithophilic mosquitoes.

PLOS 12/05/15 Comparing Competitive Fitness of West Nile Virus Strains in Avian and Mosquito Hosts

Single nucleotide substitutions in the WNV genome may impact viral fitness necessary for WNV adaptation and evolution as previously shown for the WN02 genotype. In an effort to study phenotypic change, we developed an in vivo fitness competition model in two biologically relevant hosts for WNV. The House Finch (HOFI; Haemorhous mexicanus) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes represent moderately susceptible hosts for WNV, are highly abundant in Western North America and frequently are infected with WNV in nature. USDA - 2014 - The Global Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus. IJERPH, Vol. 10, 2013: Using Undergraduate Researchers to Build Vector and West Nile Virus Surveillance Capacity.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus. PLOS 19/06/12 Characterization of Rabensburg Virus, a Flavivirus Closely Related to West Nile Virus of the Japanese Encephalitis. Rabensburg virus (RABV), a Flavivirus with ~76% nucleotide and 90% amino acid identity with representative members of lineage one and two West Nile virus (WNV), previously was isolated from Culex pipiens and Aedes rossicus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, and phylogenetic and serologic analyses demonstrated that it was likely a new lineage of WNV.

PLOS 19/06/12 Characterization of Rabensburg Virus, a Flavivirus Closely Related to West Nile Virus of the Japanese Encephalitis

However, no direct link between RABV and human disease has been definitively established and the extent to which RABV utilizes the typical WNV transmission cycle is unknown. Herein, we evaluated vector competence and capacity for vertical transmission (VT) in Cx. pipiens; in vitro growth on avian, mammalian, and mosquito cells; and infectivity and viremia production in birds. RABV infection and replication only were detected on mosquito cells. Experimentally inoculated birds did not become infected. Cx. pipiens had poor peroral vector competence and a higher VT rate as compared to US-WNV in Cx. pipiens. Figures Editor: Bradley S. Introduction. Virology Journal 2012, West Nile virus: characterization and diagnostic applications of monoclonal antibodies.

HINDAWI – 2012 - A Novel System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Production of Detection and Diagnostic Reagents of West Nile Virus. UNIVERSIDAD ZARAGOZA via EFSA - 2012 - Inventory of available data and data sources and proposal for data collection on vector-b. BMC Ecology 2011, 11:23 The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquit. ARBOZOONET 09/12/10 Report of VLA's workshop on West Nile virus diagnostic techniques is published in Arbo-Zoonet newsletter. WAGENINGEN ACADEMIC - 2007 - Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe.

CADUCEE - Dossier virus du Nil (mis à jour juillet 2004) AGROPOLIS MONTPELLIER - Texte de la conférence donnée à Agropolis Museum le 22 novembre 2000 Le virus West Nile, un arbovirus ré. Le terme « arbovirus » (Arthropod Borne Virus, Virus porté par Arthropodes) regroupe des virus très différents les uns des autres, certains sont très connus car ils entraînent d’importantes épidémies chez l’homme comme la fièvre jaune ou la dengue, d’autres ne le sont que des spécialistes.

Ces virus sont transmis par des insectes piqueurs haematophages (moustiques, tiques, phlébotomes et autres) d’une manière biologique, ce qui sous-entend un cycle de plusieurs jours, indispensable, à l’intérieur du corps de l’insecte. La transmission mécanique, comme le feraient des seringues entre personnes, n’existe pas ou n’existe que rarement et toujours secondairement. Les arboviroses sont des zoonoses : maladies d’animaux sauvages et/ou domestiques, pouvant passer chez l’homme (chez qui elles entraînent des fièvres bénignes, mais parfois des hémorragies, des encéphalites, des méningoencéphalomyélites). 1. Le cycle d’une zoonose à moustiques (Figure 1) 2. 3. 4. 1. Environnement, Risques & Santé. Volume 4, Numéro 2, Mars-Avril 2005 Au sommaire: VIROLOGIE Volume 9, Numéro 5, septembre-octobre 2005 Infections par le virus du Nil occidental : synthèse et actualités épidémio.