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Harmful Algae 5(3) · April 2006 Potentially toxic and harmful microalgae from coastal waters of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea) Abstract A total number of 40 potentially toxic microalgae and 5 taxa causing discolorations have been identified along the coasts of the Campania region (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea).

Harmful Algae 5(3) · April 2006 Potentially toxic and harmful microalgae from coastal waters of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea)

This number is based on results of over 20 years of research at a coastal station in the Gulf of Naples, 4 years of monitoring activity along the Campania coasts and of a series of scattered and sporadic observations. Several species of the recently erected genera Karenia and Takayama are reported for the first time in the area.

Information on the period of highest abundances or most probable period of occurrence indicates the late spring and summer as the periods of maximum risk of harmful events. CICIMAR Oceanides 01/2012; A checklist and classification of living Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata, Alveolata) HARMFUL ALGAE - 2008 - harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States. RIKILT WAGENINGEN - Présentation : Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish. 2004 - Marine Biotoxins. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

2004 - Marine Biotoxins

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this document for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorised without any prior written permission from copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this document for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without the written permission of FAO. Application for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Publishing and Multimedia Service, Information Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org Contents Acknowledgements Foreword Abbreviations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 9.1 Conclusions 9.2 Recommendations References FAO Technical Papers Back Cover. Disease Listing, Marine Toxins, General Information. Marine Toxins Frequently Asked Questions What are marine toxins?

Disease Listing, Marine Toxins, General Information

Marine toxins are naturally occurring chemicals that can contaminate certain seafood. The seafood contaminated with these chemicals frequently looks, smells, and tastes normal. When humans eat such seafood, disease can result. What sort of diseases do marine toxins cause? The most common diseases caused by marine toxins in United States in order of incidence are scombrotoxic fish poisoning, ciguatera poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning.

Scombrotoxic fish poisoning also known as scombroid or histamine fish poisoning, is caused by bacterial spoilage of certain finfish such as tuna, mackerel, bonito, and, rarely, other fish. Ciguatera poisoning or ciguatera is caused by eating contaminated tropical reef fish. Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by a different dinoflagellate with a different toxin, than that causing ciguatera poisoning. Back to Top. Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish – Palytoxin group.

EFSA Journal 2009; 7(12):1393 [40 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1393 Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel On request from: European Commission Question number: EFSA-Q-2006-065G Adopted: 26 November 2009 Published: 15 December 2009 Affiliation: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) assessed the risks to human health related to the presence of palytoxin (PlTX)-group toxins in shellfish.

Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish – Palytoxin group

PlTX-group toxins have mainly been detected in soft corals of the genus Palythoa and in algae of the genus Ostreopsis. Blooms of Ostreopsis spp. have recently been reported in some European countries. Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Biotoxines marines dans les coquillages – L’acide domoïque. Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel Question number: EFSA-Q-2006-065H Adopted: 02 July 2009 Published: 24 July 2009 Domoic acid (DA) and its isomers are marine biotoxins causing amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans.

Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Biotoxines marines dans les coquillages – L’acide domoïque

Symptoms of ASP include gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea or abdominal cramps) and/or neurological symptoms (confusion, loss of memory, or other serious signs such as seizure or coma) occurring within 24-48 hours after consuming contaminated shellfish. DA is a water-soluble cyclic amino acid mainly produced by marine red algae of the genus Chondria and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitschia. CABI - 2003 - Food Safety: Contaminants and Toxins. MAR. DRUGS - 2008 - Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.