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FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY - Control of norovirus on a cruise ship. Vanessa Shiplee (Student Environmental Health Officer) and Allan Johnson (Senior Environmental Health Officer, Harlow District Council) Norovirus is the most prevalent cause of infectious gastroenteritis in England and Wales (HPA, 2013), It has a single-stranded RNA genome, a non-enveloped protein capsid protecting it from environmental degradation, and is highly infectious.

FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY - Control of norovirus on a cruise ship.

Outbreaks of norovirus result in a substantial economic cost to the cruise industry and the disease burden is often difficult to quantify, with deaths and long-term outcomes often under reported. Norovirus is particularly problematic in confined environments e.g. cruise ships where multiple transmission routes of infection can occur via the faecal oral route from hand contact surfaces and aerosols. The literature contains several references to norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships but the control measures are poorly described. Specific detection methods for norovirus are expensive and results take time. Emerging Infectious Diseases journal Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2005, Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, M.-A Widdowson et al. Marc-Alain Widdowson*

Emerging Infectious Diseases journal Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2005, Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, M.-A Widdowson et al.

Emerging Infectious Diseases journal Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2005, Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship, E.T. Isakbaeva et al. Elmira T.

Emerging Infectious Diseases journal Vol. 11, No. 1, January 2005, Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship, E.T. Isakbaeva et al.

Isakbaeva*, Marc-Alain Widdowson*† ( , R. Suzanne Beard*, Sandra N. Bulens*†, James Mullins*, Stephan S. Monroe*, Joseph Bresee*, Patricia Sassano‡, Elaine H. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010;27:130-5 Occurrence of aflatoxin M 1 and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain) Los norovirus, también conocidos hasta hace poco tiempo por el nombre de virus Norwalk-like o partículas virales redondas de pequeño tamaño (SRSV), constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de virus de tipo ARN que han sido clasificados dentro de la familia Norovirus1,2.

Rev Iberoam Micol. 2010;27:130-5 Occurrence of aflatoxin M 1 and exposure assessment in Catalonia (Spain)

La infección por este virus produce un cuadro clínico caracterizado fundamentalmente por náuseas y vómitos, con una evolución autolimitada de unas 48-72 h3. En la década de los noventa, el desarrollo de técnicas de biología molecular como la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa previa transcripción inversa (PCR-RT)4 ha puesto de manifiesto que son los principales causantes de gastroenteritis en los países occidentales3. El reservorio y la fuente de infección son únicamente las personas con una enfermedad aguda y se considera que no hay portadores crónicos9. Sin embargo, estudios en voluntarios han demostrado infecciones agudas totalmente asintomáticas que podrían tener un papel relevante como fuente de infección10. Norovirus. Norovirus is a genus of genetically diverse single-stranded RNA, non-enveloped viruses in the Caliciviridae family.[1] The known viruses in the genus are all considered to be the variant strains of a single species called Norwalk virus.

Norovirus

The viruses are transmitted by fecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person contact,[2] and via aerosolization of the virus and subsequent contamination of surfaces.[3] Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and affect people of all ages.[4] Norovirus infection is characterized by nausea, forceful vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and in some cases, loss of taste. General lethargy, weakness, muscle aches, headache, and low-grade fever may occur. The disease is usually self-limiting, and severe illness is rare. The genus name Norovirus is derived from Norwalk virus, the only species of the genus. Diagnosis[edit] Virology[edit] Transmission[edit] Classification[edit] Structure[edit] Pathophysiology[edit] Journal of Applied Microbiology - JUILLET 2005 - Detection of norovirus capsid proteins in faecal and food samples by a real tim.

EUROSURVEILLANCE 11/03/04 Au sommaire : Viral gastroenteritis epidemic of 2002 associated with new norovirus variant. Ben Lopman (ben.lopman@hpa.org.uk), Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, England, on behalf of the European Foodborne Viruses Network.

EUROSURVEILLANCE 11/03/04 Au sommaire : Viral gastroenteritis epidemic of 2002 associated with new norovirus variant

For correspondence, contact the network coordinator: Marion Koopmans (Marion.Koopmans@rivm.nl). Public health workers from around Europe will recall 2002/2003 as the ‘winter of norovirus outbreaks’. Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the community and are often associated with outbreaks in semi-closed environments such as nursing homes, hospitals, cruise ships and hotels. Reports in medical channels including Promed-mail ( Eurosurveillance Weekly (1), and the popular press brought an apparent epidemic of this common viral cause of gastroenteritis to public attention. Three of the participants in the network, the Netherlands, Germany and England and Wales, had sustained epidemiological and viral characterisation surveillance from 1995 to 2002. CDC EID JANVIER 2003 Two Epidemiological Patterns of Norovirus Outbreaks: Surveillance in England and Wales, 1992-2000, B.A. Lop.

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CDC EID JANVIER 2003 Two Epidemiological Patterns of Norovirus Outbreaks: Surveillance in England and Wales, 1992-2000, B.A. Lop

Protecting People.™ <div class="noscript"> Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. Emerging Infectious Disease ISSN: 1080-6059. Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2008 Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cru.