TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK - 2003 - Human exposure to selected phthalates in Denmark. The Open Allergy Journal, 2009, 2, 45-50 Phthalates, Pesticides, and Bisphenol-A Exposure and the Development of Nonoccupational Asthma and Allergies: How Valid Are the Links? Royan Institute International Journal of Fertility and Sterility Vol 1, No 4, Feb-Mar 2008 Evaluation of the Phthalate Esters in. Phthalate.
General chemical structure of phthalates.
(R and R' are general placeholders) Phthalates (pronounced /ˈθæˌleɪts/ ), or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity). Phthalates are manufactured by reacting phthalic anhydride with alcohol(s) that range from methanol and ethanol (C1/C2) up to tridecyl alcohol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branching. They are divided into two distinct groups, with very different applications, toxicological properties, and classification, based on the number of carbon atoms in their alcohol chain. They are used primarily to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC). NATIONAL ACADEMIES 18/12/08 EPA Should Pursue Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates and Other Chemicals. Read Full ReportAdditional Links Date: Dec. 18, 2008 Contacts: Jennifer Walsh, Media Relations Officer Alison Burnette, Media Relations Assistant Office of News and Public Information.
EUROPE - SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEES - SCHER 17/10/08 Opinion on phthalates in school supplies. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 February; 114(2): 270–276. Human Breast Milk Contamination with Phthalates and Alterations of Endo. Environ Health Perspect > v.117(1); Jan 2009 Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactat. PHTHALATE INFORMATION CENTER.