Royan Institute International Journal of Fertility and Sterility Vol 1, No 4, Feb-Mar 2008 Evaluation of the Phthalate Esters in. The Open Allergy Journal, 2009, 2, 45-50 Phthalates, Pesticides, and Bisphenol-A Exposure and the Development of Nonoccupational. Phthalate. General chemical structure of phthalates.
(R and R' are general placeholders) Phthalates (pronounced /ˈθæˌleɪts/ ), or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity). Phthalates are manufactured by reacting phthalic anhydride with alcohol(s) that range from methanol and ethanol (C1/C2) up to tridecyl alcohol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branching. They are divided into two distinct groups, with very different applications, toxicological properties, and classification, based on the number of carbon atoms in their alcohol chain.
They are used primarily to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In studies of rodents exposed to certain phthalates, high doses have been shown to change hormone levels and cause birth defects. Uses History Properties Table of the most common phthalates Health effects Exposure STATS 27/05/05 Media Claims Phthalates (Might) Cause Genital Defects. May 27, 2005 Rebecca GoldinBut the study itself did not even consider this hypothesis.
The media has pulled out the scare tactics again. Armed with a recent study which will be published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, USA Today claimed that a “common chemical may cause defects in baby boys.” This chemical substance is phthalates, found in an assortment of products, from cosmetics to fragrance to plastics. And the alleged defects are smaller genitals, improperly descended testicles, and (down the road) infertility. In fact, the study did not examine the impact of phthalates on genitals (and none of the boys in the study had defective or malformed genitalia).
Notably, the study did not claim there was a correlation between the level of metabolites and penile length or volume, or the size of the scrotum, despite having measured them. In addition to claiming that the study was about penile size, USA Today’s report is riddled with errors. But this reasoning is faulty. US CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION - 2008 - Section 108: Products Containing Certain Phthalates. NATIONAL ACADEMIES 18/12/08 EPA Should Pursue Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates and Other Chemicals. Read Full ReportAdditional Links Date: Dec. 18, 2008 Contacts: Jennifer Walsh, Media Relations Officer Alison Burnette, Media Relations Assistant Office of News and Public Information 202-334-2138; e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org> FOR iMMEDIATE rELEASE EPA Should Pursue Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates and Other Chemicals -- The U.S.
Phthalates are used in a wide variety of consumer products, such as cosmetics, medical devices, children's toys, and building materials. Recent animal studies have increased understanding of the potential risks from phthalates, although few human studies on the health effects of phthalates are available, said the committee that wrote the report. Then, the committee reviewed animal research and found that exposure to various phthalates in lab animals produced similar health outcomes, including a range of effects on the development of the male reproductive system.
. [ This news release and report are available at ] Division on Earth and Life Studies Edmund Crouch Sciences. EUROPE - SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEES - SCHER 17/10/08 Opinion on phthalates in school supplies. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005 Au sommaire: Phthalates and Baby Boys: A Measure of Concern? Environ Health Perspect. 2006 February; 114(2): 270–276. Human Breast Milk Contamination with Phthalates and Alterations of Endo.
Environ Health Perspect > v.117(1); Jan 2009 Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactat. PHTHALATE INFORMATION CENTER.