WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY 02/02/97 DISEASE RESISTANCE TESTING IN COCOA - A review on behalf of FAO/INGENIC. INDIAN PHYTOPATH - 1997 - occurrence and distribution of mating types of Phytophthora species causing black pod disease of cocoa. UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS INTERNATIONAL - 1979 - Thèse en ligne : Survey, monitoring and chemical control of insect infestations in stored caao, Bahia, Brazil. FDA 17/07/08 Guidance for Industry: Standard of Identity for White Chocolate. Contains Nonbinding Recommendations July 17, 2008 Small Entity Compliance Guide You may submit written or electronic comments regarding this guidance at any time.
Submit written comments on the guidance to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Submit electronic comments to Additional copies are available from:Office of Nutrition, Labeling, and Dietary SupplementsFood Labeling and Standards Staff HFS-820Center for Food Safety and Applied NutritionFood and Drug Administration5100 Paint Branch ParkwayCollege Park, MD 20740(Tel) 301-436-2371 (Updated phone: 240-402-2371) U.S. Guidance for Industry(1)Standard of Identity for White ChocolateSmall Entity Compliance Guide Introduction | Questions and Answers This guidance represents the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) current thinking on this topic.
Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Denmark - OCT 2006 - The microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations. FOOD CONTROL - 1994 - HACCP in the chocolate industry. Cacao. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Jeune garçon faisant sécher des fêves de cacao au Vénézuela Le cacao (du nahuatl cacahuatl qui désigne les fèves du cacaoyer) est la poudre obtenue après torréfaction et broyage de l'amande des fèves de cacao fermentées produites par le cacaoyer. Cette opération permet également d'extraire la graisse que l'on appelle beurre de cacao. 95 % de la production mondiale de cacao provient d'une agriculture familiale paysanne vivant de un à trois hectares de plantation de cacaoyers.
Histoire[modifier | modifier le code] Le cacao dont le nom vient du nahuatl «cacahuatl» était traditionnellement utilisé par les populations méso-américaines, notamment par les Mayas puis par les Aztèques. Les Espagnols, qui rencontrèrent par hasard pour la première fois le cacao (appelé « théobroma cacao », théobroma signifiant en grec "nourriture des dieux") dans les Caraïbes en 1495, ne fixèrent leur attention sur la fève qu'à partir de la conquête du Mexique. Chocolate. Chocolate After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted.
The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because the cocoa mass is usually liquefied before being molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions.
Cocoa solids are one of the richest sources of flavanol antioxidants. They also contain alkaloids such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine. These have physiological effects on the body and are linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and a vast number of foodstuffs involving chocolate have been created. Etymology History Mesoamerican usage Mayan writing referring to cocoa. Types. FSA - JUIN 2009 - Guidance on the Cocoa and Chocolate Products Regulations 2003. AGROMETEOROLOGY 04/11/08 Cocoa and climate change: can the lame help the blind? Climate change, this blind force acting with changing rainfall patterns and amounts, and with increasing temperatures, influences cocoa production most often negatively.
In many places, with more and also more aggressive extreme events and higher climate variability as well, this becomes worse. Indeed, it appears as if in quite some places the vulnerability of cocoa production to adverse climatic conditions will be exacerbated (e.g. Anim-Kwapong and Frimpong, 2005). Definitely, that is, if no or too little action is taken. Kees StigterAgromet Vision (Bondowoso, Indonesia and Bruchem, The Netherlands) [email@example.com] Introduction Trees store much of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and therefore also cocoa trees can mitigate global warming (Sommariba, 2006). Reading the literature on cocoa production, with only few exceptions the industry has very often been paralysed by insustainability from a series of causes (e.g.
There are many angles from which cocoa production can be seen. UNIVERSITE GIESSEN - 2005 - Thèse en ligne : The contents and effects of polyphenols in chocolate. BIOSECURITY NZ 01/07/09 Cacao to the United States of America. Theobroma spp.
Common Name: Cacao Conditions: Prohibited Last updated: 1 July 2009 Nursery Stock to the United States of America All nursery stock including trees, shrubs, vines, rooted cuttings, and other plant products for propagation (excluding seeds, un-rooted cuttings, plants grown in the wild and articles solely for food, analytical or manufacturing purposes). Conditions: Plant import permit required for lots of 13 or more articles (other than seeds, bulbs or sterile cultures of orchid plants). Additional declaration: "Grown on land microscopically examined by the NZ MPI within the last 12 months.