CUREUS 06/02/21 Management of West Nile Encephalitis: An Uncommon Complication of West Nile Virus. The West Nile virus (WNV) is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States (US) .
In 1999 to 2017, a reported 48,183 patients were infected with WNV in the US alone . In 2012 several outbreaks occurred in the US, the biggest of which occurred in Dallas, Texas. In that episode, the incidence was 7.3 per 100,000 people, compared with 2.91 per 100,000 in a similar outbreak in 2006 . Specialists describe two clinical presentations of the infection, West Nile Fever and WNV Encephalitis.
West Nile Fever occurs in 25% of those infected, and symptoms include rapid onset of headaches, generalized fatigue, maculopapular rash, fever, and muscle pain. Patients with WNV encephalitis often suffer from muscle weakness and flaccid paralysis due to inflammation of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brainstem, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and loss of neural cells . Methods. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2020 Jun 1; Temporal and Spatial Impacts of Hurricane Damage on West Nile Virus Transmission and Human Risk.
We use a mathematical model based on those described in Robertson and Caillouët (2016) and Beebe and Robertson (2017) to simulate the dynamics of WNV over a single year in each type of damage-affected region.
The primary vector of interest is Cx. quinquefasciatus, which is an opportunistic species that feeds on avian hosts, humans, and other nonhuman mammals. The percentage of bites upon each host type is highly variable between studies (Takken and Verhulst 2013) and likely to depend upon the relative densities and exposures of available hosts. Birds are the primary definitive host for WNV, with species varying greatly in competence or their ability to transmit the pathogen (Komar et al. 2003, Kilpatrick et al. 2007).
PARASITES & VECTORS 24/02/21 Spatio-temporal impacts of aerial adulticide applications on populations of West Nile virus vector mosquitoes. 1.Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, Lanciotti RS, Bode AV, Campbell GL.
Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1174–9.PubMed PubMed Central Article Google Scholar 2.McLean RG, Ubico SR, Docherty DE, Hansen WR, Sileo L, McNamara TS. West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:54–7.CAS PubMed Article Google Scholar 3.Kilpatrick AM, LaDeau SL, Marra PP. VACCINES 08/12/20 In-Depth Analysis of Genetic Variation Associated with Severe West Nile Viral Disease. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus which causes symptomatic disease in a minority of infected humans.
To identify novel genetic variants associated with severe disease, we utilized data from an existing case-control study of WNV and included population controls for an expanded analysis. We conducted imputation and gene-gene interaction analysis in the largest and most comprehensive genetic study conducted to date for West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Within the imputed West Nile virus dataset (severe cases n = 381 and asymptomatic/mild controls = 441), we found novel loci within the MCF.2 Cell Line Derived Transforming Sequence Like (MCF2L) gene (rs9549655 and rs2297192) through the individual loci analyses, although none reached statistical significance. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PEERJ 27/07/20 Exploring the socio-economic and environmental components of infectious diseases using multivariate geovisualization: West Nile Virus.
Introduction Variations in infectious disease risk occur across environmental gradients and population groups.
Such variations often manifest themselves in geographic space and can be attributed to complex interactions between the environment, population, and behavior (Meade, 1977). The underlying processes behind these interactions occur at different, and often conflicting spatial and temporal scales. Additionally, the data related to those processes are often collected within different spatial boundaries (e.g., county level versus census tract verses ecosystem) and for differing research purposes.
Attempts to understand these processes by exploring primary or secondary data sources can introduce additional levels of complexity due to issues of uncertain data collection contexts (Kwan, 2012), incomplete or unavailable data (Zhang & Goodchild, 2002), or differences in the underlying questions that drove data collection in the first place (Elliott & Wartenberg, 2004).
Table 1: I. Results. Emerging Microbes & Infections 20/11/20 Competition between Usutu virus and West Nile virus during simultaneous and sequential infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes. OSMOSE VIA YOUTUBE 27/05/20 West Nile virus - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology. Pathogens. 2020 Sep 24; Transstadial Transmission and Replication Kinetics of West Nile Virus Lineage 1 in Laboratory Reared Ixodes ricinus Ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne agent that has also been isolated from several tick species.
Vector competence of Ixodes ricinus, one of the most common tick species in Europe, has been poorly investigated for WNV to date. As such, to evaluate the vector competence, laboratory reared Ixodes ricinus nymphs were in vitro fed with WNV lineage 1 infectious blood, allowed to molt, and the resulting females artificially fed to study the virus transmission. Furthermore, we studied the kinetics of WNV replication in ticks after infecting nymphs using an automatic injector. Active replication of WNV was detected in injected nymphs from day 7 post-infection until 28 dpi. In the nymphs infected by artificial feeding, the transstadial transmission of WNV was confirmed molecularly in 46.7% of males, while virus transmission during in vitro feeding of I. ricinus females originating from infected nymphs was not registered. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1. J Math Biol. 2019 Jul; Spreading speed for a West Nile virus model with free boundary.
NEW MICROBIOLOGICA - 2020 - Fatal case of West Nile encephalitis associated with acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): a case report. VIRUSES 29/01/20 West Nile or Usutu Virus? A Three-Year Follow-Up of Humoral and Cellular Response in a Group of Asymptomatic Blood Donors. 1.
PEERJ 09/01/19 Microbiota variations in Culex nigripalpus disease vector mosquito of West Nile virus and Saint Louis Encephalitis from different geographic origins. Background Culex nigripalpus Theobald is a primary vector of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus in North America and also an important vector for other arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) in southeastern United States (Kopp et al., 2013; Day, Tabachnick & Smartt, 2015).
It occurs widely in various habitats, including the transitional zone between salt and freshwater coastal habitats, irrigated agricultural sites, and engineered treatment wetlands (O’Meara & Evans, 1983; Darsie & Ward, 2005). This species typically represents the dominant Culex colonizer of newly formed aquatic habitats (Duguma et al., 2017a). PATHOGENS 07/01/20 Comparative Pathology of West Nile Virus in Humans and Non-Human Animals. West Nile virus (WNV) continues to be a major cause of human arboviral neuroinvasive disease.
Susceptible non-human vertebrates are particularly diverse, ranging from commonly affected birds and horses to less commonly affected species such as alligators. This review summarizes the pathology caused by West Nile virus during natural infections of humans and non-human animals. While the most well-known findings in human infection involve the central nervous system, WNV can also cause significant lesions in the heart, kidneys and eyes.
Time has also revealed chronic neurologic sequelae related to prior human WNV infection. Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment VIA YOUTUBE 28/12/10 The Function of Biodiversity in Zoonotic Disease Risk: The Cases of Lyme Disease and West Nile Virus. BIORXIV 16/12/19 The drivers of West Nile virus human illness: fine scale dynamic effects of weather, mosquito infection, social, and biological conditions. PLOS 12/11/19 CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Abstract Culex quinquefasciatus Say is an opportunistic blood feeder with a wide geographic distribution which is also a major vector for a range of diseases of both animals and humans.
CRISPR/Cas technologies have been applied to a wide variety of organisms for both applied and basic research purposes. CRISPR/Cas methods open new possibilities for genetic research in non-model organisms of public health importance. In this work we have adapted microinjection techniques commonly used in other mosquito species to Culex quinquefasciatus, and have shown these to be effective at generating homozygous knock-out mutations of a target gene in one generation. Pathogens. 2019 Oct 16;8(4). Current Understanding of West Nile Virus Clinical Manifestations, Immune Responses, Neuroinvasion, and Immunotherapeutic Implications. MDPI and ACS Style Bai, F.; Thompson, E.A.; Vig, P.J.S.; Leis, A.A.
We begin by describing our primary model outcomes. We then explain our method for calculating the R0 of WNV. Finally, we detail how we estimated each parameter in the equation for R0 using individual sub-models, and how we linked these estimates and propagated uncertainty to calculate R0. VIRUSES 05/08/19 Usefulness of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) for West Nile virus Surveillance in Non-Endemic and Endemic Situations. Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019 : In September 2017, passive surveillance allowed the detection of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 for the first time in northern Spain in a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis).
However, a cross sectional study carried out in Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) in a nearby area evidenced that WNV had been circulating two months earlier. Therefore, active surveillance in Eurasian magpies proved its effectiveness for the early detection of WNV in a non-endemic area. Further surveys in 2018 and the beginning of 2019 using young magpies (i.e., born after 2017) showed the repeated circulation of WNV in the same region in the following transmission season. Therefore, active surveillance in Eurasian magpies as well proved to be useful for the detection of WNV circulation in areas that may be considered as endemic. VETERINARIA ITALIANA 31/03/19 Immunological response in horses following West Nile virus vaccination with inactivated or recombinant vaccine.
Can Vet J. 2018 Oct; 59(10): 1119–1120. West Nile virus in horses — What do you need to know to diagnose the disease? VIRUSES 21/05/19 West Nile Virus Associations in Wild Mammals: An Update. Several wild mammal exposures to WNV have been reported in recent years. While some are consistent with those species that have been reported previously, others represent species with no previous documented exposures. The majority of recent exposures have been reported in artiodactyls, carnivores and mesocarnivores, rodents, and non-human primates (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4). In general, evidence of these exposures has been ascertained through detections of antibodies.
However, some new reports of viremia in wild-caught mammals as well as apparent severe disease in some species have been documented. While the majority of the studies discussed in this review utilized multiple flaviviruses to determine the WNV sero-status of the animals that were studied, some did not. THE ROYAL SOCIETY 16/01/19 Insecticide resistance genes affect Culex quinquefasciatus vector competence for West Nile virus. ECOSPHERE 22/03/17 Can existing data on West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitos explain strain replacement?
Introduction. PARASITES & VECTORS - 2017 - West Nile virus host-vector-pathogen interactions in a colonial raptor. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2017 Jan;183:1-6. Comparison of assays for the detection of West Nile virus antibodies in equine serum after natural infection or vaccination. NATURE SCIENTIFIC REPORT 31/05/17 Mosquito community influences West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild birds: implications for the risk of spillover into human populations. NATURE SCIENTIFIC REPORT 08/02/18 Mosquito community influences West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild birds: implications for the risk of spillover into human populations. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;56:30-33. Absence of protection from West Nile virus disease and adverse effects in red legged partridges after non-structural NS1 protein administration. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES 06/09/17 Epidemiologic and clinical parameters of West Nile virus infections in humans: a scoping review.
We summarized the peer-reviewed literature on epidemiologic and clinical parameters of WNV infection in North America. Parameters included hospitalization, recovery, mortality, risk factors for WNND and risk factors for mortality. Our review highlighted the heterogeneity in epidemiologic patterns across jurisdictions and outbreak seasons, even within North America. While there was consensus that age is a significant risk factor for neuroinvasive disease and death, the association of other sociodemographic and clinical factors was less definitive. Overall, patients with AFP or WNE fared worse than patients with WNM and WNF in terms of hospitalization and mortality. The proportion hospitalized, LOS, proportion discharged home and case-fatality ranged considerably among studies.
There was an overall lack of data specific to each WNV syndrome, particularly for AFP and WNME. We included 37 studies based on surveillance and monitoring programs on the national, state and local levels. BMC Veterinary Research 29/11/17 Syndromic surveillance for West Nile virus using raptors in rehabilitation. Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 15;7(1):11699. Striking diflubenzuron resistance in Culex pipiens, the prime vector of West Nile Virus. Culex pipiens populations. Journal of Infection and Public Health Volume 10, Issue 3, May–June 2017, Bibliometric assessment of scientific production of literature of West Nile Virus. To assess the impact of WNV on scientific reports published globally, a bibliometric analysis was conducted by searching the major publication-indexing databases Medline (using GoPubMed®), Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO for WNV-related content from prominent journals.
One Health. 2016 Sep 22;2:136-138. Wild snakes harbor West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Nov 2;95(5):1121-1129. Overlap in the Seasonal Infection Patterns of Avian Malaria Parasites and West Nile Virus in Vectors and Hosts. Ecol Evol. 2017 Apr 9;7(10):3507-3519. Aquatic microfauna alter larval food resources and affect development and biomass of West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis vector Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 23, 25 May 2017, Cost effectiveness of a targeted age-based West Nile virus vaccination program. Open Access. CELL REPORT 25/04/17 Mosquitoes Transmit Unique West Nile Virus Populations during Each Feeding Episode.
Accordingly, we sought to determine how WNV populations expectorated by a single mosquito change through time and how these populations are altered during the course of subsequent avian viremia. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 04/04/17 Mosquito Microbiome Dynamics, a Background for Prevalence and Seasonality of West Nile Virus. Introduction Metazoa harbor diverse microbial communities (microbiota) largely dominated by bacteria (Bordenstein and Theis, 2015; Yadav et al., 2015). The microbiota modifies the ability of a host to be affected by, and to transmit, pathogens.
Thus, understanding the relationship between microbiota and arthropod disease vectors, including mosquitoes, may impact mitigation of emerging infectious diseases (Dennison et al., 2014; Van Treuren et al., 2015). Recently emerging vector-borne diseases have been linked to the introduction of non-native insect vectors and to changing ecological conditions including climate, urbanization, and greater human intrusion into areas where vectors and pathogens prevail (Bonizzoni et al., 2013).
However, it is not known whether vector competence (i.e., the ability to transmit pathogens) is shaped mainly by environmental conditions, genetic background of the insect vector, or by the vector microbiota. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Jun; 5(6): e53. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel. PARASITES & VECTORS 31/08/16 Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.
Mosquito feeding on raptor vs non-raptor birds was investigated in a free-choice experiment under semi-natural conditions. A major finding was that C. pipiens, one of the main vectors of arboviral zoonotic diseases , fed preferentially on raptors over other birds in the study. Several surveys conducted in North America revealed that raptors constitute a small percentage of total avian blood meals of mosquitoes collected in the field, varying from 0.3 to 3.4 %, as expected for low density hosts on top of the food chains [39, 40, 41, 42]. However, a study of mosquito blood meal analysis at a raptor rehabilitation center in Alabama (USA), reported that more than 58 % of blood meals were from raptors, showing that the frequency of raptor blood meals is clearly influenced by their abundance in the avian community .
The results of our experiment suggest that mosquitoes may actually feed upon raptors at higher rates than expected in the case of random feeding on available birds. VIROLOGY JOURNAL - 2016 - Newcastle disease virus-vectored West Nile fever vaccine is immunogenic in mammals and poultry. WNV is an important zoonotic pathogen widely distributed geographically, with emergence of increasingly neuroevasive strains.
WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 01/05/16 West nile virus. CDC EID - Volume 22, Number 9—September 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 15-0809 Superppression reduces spillover of West Nile Virus. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 20/04/16 Visual Detection of West Nile Virus Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Vertical Flow Visualization Strip.
PLOS 12/05/15 Comparing Competitive Fitness of West Nile Virus Strains in Avian and Mosquito Hosts. USDA - 2014 - The Global Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus. IJERPH, Vol. 10, 2013: Using Undergraduate Researchers to Build Vector and West Nile Virus Surveillance Capacity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus.
PLOS 19/06/12 Characterization of Rabensburg Virus, a Flavivirus Closely Related to West Nile Virus of the Japanese Encephalitis. Virology Journal 2012, West Nile virus: characterization and diagnostic applications of monoclonal antibodies. HINDAWI – 2012 - A Novel System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Production of Detection and Diagnostic Reagents of West Nile Virus.
UNIVERSIDAD ZARAGOZA via EFSA - 2012 - Inventory of available data and data sources and proposal for data collection on vector-b. BMC Ecology 2011, 11:23 The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquit. ARBOZOONET 09/12/10 Report of VLA's workshop on West Nile virus diagnostic techniques is published in Arbo-Zoonet newsletter. WAGENINGEN ACADEMIC - 2007 - Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe.