MICROORGANISMS 28/02/23 Development of an Extraction Method to Detect Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, and Noroviruses in Fish Products (Etude ANSES) 1. Introduction Enteric viruses, such as hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E (HEV)) and human norovirus, in fish and shellfish are a health concern worldwide. A significant number of foodborne illnesses have been reported after ingestion of raw shellfish and fish products [1,2,3].
Virus contamination occurs via consumption of contaminated food, direct person-to-person contact, contact with contaminated environmental surfaces [4,5], and for hepatitis E virus, via direct contact with infected animals [6,7,8]. Bivalves mollusks such as oysters are known to bioaccumulate pathogens that are the major etiological agents of gastroenteritis and have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks . ISO 15216 procedures [18,19] propose molecular methods for detecting HAV and norovirus in high-risk food categories, such as bivalves mollusks, soft fruit, leaf, stem and bulb vegetables, bottled water, and on food surfaces. 2. 2.1. 2.2. Table 1. Table 2. 2.3. Figure 1. 2.4. 2.5. 3. VIRUSES 18/05/19 Genetic Variability and Evolution of Hepatitis E Virus.
1. Introduction Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis worldwide. The infection is generally self-limiting; however, infection in immunocompromised patients can cause chronic hepatitis. Fatal cases of acute fulminant hepatitis have been reported in pregnant women, people with underlying liver disease and elderly people [1,2,3,4]. HEV infection is distributed globally in both developing and industrialized countries. HEV infection has been recognized as a self-limiting acute infection transmitted through the fecal–oral route. 3. HEV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a genomic length ranging from 6.6 to 7.2 kb (Figure 3). Figure 3. 4. HEV infection is distributed around the world.
Pigs are the primary reservoir of HEV. Countries like China and Mongolia experienced a shift in the prevalent genotypes. In European countries, HEV-3 is the prevalent genotype. PIG333 22/05/17 Importance of Hepatitis E virus in pigs. There are five main types of viral hepatitis in humans designated as hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis E is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV; taxonomic name Orthohepevirus A), a non-enveloped RNA virus in the Hepeviridae family. Based on WHO estimates, there are approximately 20 million HEV infections every year in people worldwide.
Transmission of this virus occurs frequently via the oro-fecal route often associated with poor sanitation and contaminated drinking water. In humans, HEV is commonly associated with a mild short-term subclinical infection. Signs of acute hepatitis E may include jaundice, fatigue and nausea and often manifests as self-limiting icteric illness. Progression to severe fulminant liver failure may occur in certain high risk groups.
Besides humans, HEV has also been identified in a wide range of domestic and wild animals; however, information on clinical importance of HEV in the different animal species is still very limited. Viruses 2016, 8(10), 270; Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classiﬁcation, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes. Clin Exp Vaccine Res. Jan 2014; 3(1): 29–36. Hepatitis E virus infections in humans and animals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 4507-4533 Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission. 1. Introduction Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans, is an important public health disease in many parts of the World [1,2,3,4].
Transmission is primarily via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food or water . In developing countries in Asia and Africa, poor sanitation conditions lead to outbreaks of acute hepatitis E; however, sporadic and autochthonous cases of hepatitis E also occur throughout many industrialized countries in Europe, Asia, and North America [6,7]. In humans, the mortality rate ranges from 0.5–4% for immunocompetent individuals, however, mortality in HEV-infected pregnant women can reach up to 20% and immunocompromised individuals may develop a chronic HEV infection [8,9]. In addition to humans, HEV has been identified in numerous other animal species including wild and domestic swine, deer, chicken, mongoose, rat, ferret, fish, and rabbits with an ever-expanding host range [1,7,10]. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 4. 5. 5.1. 6.
Hépatite E. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L’Hépatite E est une hépatite virale (inflammation du foie) provoquée par une infection par un virus, le virus de l'hépatite E (VHE). L'infection par ce virus a été décrite pour la première fois en 1955 au cours d'une épidémie à New Delhi, en Inde. Virologie[modifier | modifier le code] Les particules virales ont un diamètre de 27 à 34 nanomètres, n’ont pas d’enveloppe et contiennent un seul brin d’ARN et long d'environ 7 300 bases.
Ce génome est dit « de polarité positive » qui signifie que le génome viral est directement traduit par la machinerie cellulaire et sert directement d'ARN messager. Les particules virales ont été mises en évidence pour la première fois en 1983 mais sa structure moléculaire a été clonée en 1990 seulement. Il a été classé initialement dans la famille des caliciviridae. Il existe plusieurs génotypes, numéroté de 1 à 4. Épidémiologie[modifier | modifier le code] Réservoir animal[modifier | modifier le code] CDC EID - SEPT 2009 - Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship. Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options CDC Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives.
Author affiliations: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK (B. Suggested citation for this article Abstract In 2008, acute hepatitis E infection was confirmed in 4 passengers returning to the United Kingdom after a world cruise. In 1980, hepatitis E virus (HEV) was recognized as a cause of human disease (1,2). Methods Participants returned self-completed questionnaires by mail. Results Figure. IRAN - 2008 - Présentation concernant l'hépatite E. HCV ADVOCATE - Hepatitis E (HEV) fact sheet. Animal Health Research Reviews 5(2); 145–156 - AOUT 2004 - Hepatitis E viruses in humans and animals. RIVM - 2009 - Hepatitis E virus risk profile - Identifying potential animal, food and water sources for human infections.
DEFRA 04/11/05 HEPATITIS E - Q&A. Site de vulgarisation scientifique de l'hépatite E du Groupe de travail de la MEDIZINISCHE HOCHSCHULE HANNOVER. CDC - Hepatitis E Virus Epidemiology in Industrialized Countries. Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options CDC Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives.
Material and Methods Sewage Samples ). Geographic distribution of hepatitis E. VIRAL HEPATITIS PREVENTION BOARD - Hepatitis E: a curious zoonosis - Nicole Pavio (INRA, AFSSA LERPAZ, ENVA) - Ecole Nationale V.