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PATHOGENS 24/03/22 Role of Diagnostics in Epidemiology, Management, Surveillance, and Control of Leptospirosis. A One Health approach to the epidemiology, management, surveillance, and control of leptospirosis relies on accessible and accurate diagnostics that can be applied to humans and companion animals and livestock. Diagnosis should be multifaceted and take into account exposure risk, clinical presentation, and multiple direct and/or indirect diagnostic approaches. Methods of direct detection of Leptospira spp. include culture, histopathology and immunostaining of tissues or clinical specimens, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Indirect serologic methods to detect leptospiral antibodies include the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow methods. Rapid diagnostics that can be applied at the point-of-care; NAAT and lateral flow serologic tests are essential for management of acute infection and control of outbreaks. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1.

Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2007, vol.39, Frequency of canine leptospirosis in dogs attending veterinary practices determined through microscopic agglutination test and comparison with isolation and immunofluorescence techniques. Servicios Personalizados Revista Articulo Indicadores Links relacionados Compartir Permalink Archivos de medicina veterinaria versión impresa ISSN 0301-732X Resumen SILVA, R F y RIEDEMANN, S. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leptospirosis in 400 dogs from rural and urban areas that attended veterinary practices in Valdivia (Chile), using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT).

Palabras clave : leptospirosis; comparison; techniques; diagnostic; canines. Arch. med. vet. vol.46 no.3 Valdivia 2014 Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention. Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention Leptospirosis en caninos y felinos domésticos: epidemiología, enfermedad clínica, implicaciones zoonóticas y prevención L Azócar-Aedoa, HL Smitsb, G Montic* a Becaria CONICYT, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Veterinarias, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. B KIT Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, The Netherlands. La leptospirosis es una enfermedad zoonótica de distribución mundial causada por espiroquetas del género Leptospira. Palabras clave: leptospirosis, perros, gatos, prevención.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Key words: leptospirosis, dogs, cats, prevention. Zoonoses are infections of high relevance since most of the emerging infectious diseases in humans have a zoonotic origin (Paul-Pierre 2009). Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH 12/04/14 Globalization of leptospirosis through travel and migration. 1.Bharti AR, Nally JE, Ricaldi JN, Matthias MA, Diaz MM, Lovett MA, Levett PN, Gilman RH, Willig MR, Gotuzzo E, Vinetz JM: Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003, 3: 757-771.PubMed Article Google Scholar 2.Murhekar MV, Sugunan AP, Vijayachari P, Sharma S, Sehgal SC: Risk factors in the transmission of leptospiral infection. Indian J Med Res. 1998, 107: 218-223.PubMed CAS Google Scholar 3.Abela-Ridder B, Sikkema R, Hartskeerl RA: Estimating the burden of human leptospirosis.

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010, 36 (Suppl 1): S5-7.PubMed CAS Article Google Scholar 4.Abela-Ridder B, Bertherat E, Durski K: Global burden of Human Leptospirosis and cross-sectoral interventions for its prevention and control. Prince Mahidol Award Conference 2013. 2013, Prince Mahidol Award Conference, Bangkok, Thailand Google Scholar 5.Pappas G, Papadimitriou P, Siozopoulou V, Christou L, Akritidis N: The globalization of leptospirosis: worldwide incidence trends. PLOS 26/04/18 Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

Abstract Canine distemper virus (CDV), Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica). In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015–2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively.

Twelve (33%), 6 (17%), and 30 (83%) samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. Introduction Materials and methods Ethics statement. PLOS 13/09/16 High Leptospira Diversity in Animals and Humans Complicates the Search for Common Reservoirs of Human Disease in Rural Ecuador. Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease responsible for high morbidity around the world, especially in tropical and low income countries. Rats are thought to be the main vector of human leptospirosis in urban settings. However, differences between urban and low-income rural communities provide additional insights into the epidemiology of the disease. Methodology/Principal findings Our study was conducted in two low-income rural communities near the coast of Ecuador. Conclusions/Significance A large portion of the world’s human population lives in low-income, rural communities, however, there is limited information about leptospirosis transmission dynamics in these settings.

Author Summary Leptospirosis is a febrile disease responsible for high morbidity rates all around the world. Editor: Jessica N. Received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: August 19, 2016; Published: September 13, 2016 Copyright: © 2016 Barragan et al. Introduction Materials and Methods Study site Human samples Results. West Indian Med J - 2017 - Estimated Effects of Climate Variables on Transmission of Malaria, Dengue and Leptospirosis within Georgetown, Guyana.

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA - SEPT 2015 - Thèse en ligne : Evaluation of Soil as a Risk Indicator for Human Leptospirosis in Coastal, Rural Ecuador. Revista Argentina de Microbiología Available online 9 April 2019 Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in human groups at risk due to environmental, labor or social conditions. K.J. Allan, J.E.B. Halliday, M. Moseley, R.W. Carter, A. B. Vet Microbiol, 140 (2010), pp. 287-296 C. Cad Saúde Pública, 17 (Suppl.) (2001), pp. 59-67 J. N Z Med J, 130 (2017), pp. 102-108 M. Rev Med Urug, 22 (2006), pp. 220-225 R.M. An Fac Vet, 11 (1966), pp. 93-103 R.M. Rev Urug Pat Clín Microbiol, 9 (1971), pp. 186-194 G.M. Infect Genet Evol, 9 (2009), pp. 760-768 J.F. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 8 (2014), p. e2902 F. A.M. PLoS One, 7 (2012), p. e39672 M.G. Rev Argent Microbiol, 43 (2011), pp. 42-44 F. Boletín de la 1ª jornada conjunta Academia Nacional de Veterinaria + Academia Nacional de Medicina UdelaR (2013) K.

Cad Saúde Pública, 33 (2017), p. e00039216 R.D. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 8 (2014), p. e2927 A.O. Pesq Vet Bras, 29 (2009), pp. 375-381 S. Vector-borne Zoonot Dis, 18 (2018), pp. 188-199 K.A. Clin Vac Immunol, 20 (2013), pp. 725-731 M.G.A. PLoS One, 8 (2013), p. e76549 A.A. Clin Vac Immunol, 19 (2012), pp. 740-745 S. Instituto de Patobiología INTA Castelar, Argentina (2014), pp. 16-20 M.A. V. G. D.A. GEOSPATIAL HEALTH - 2019 - Predictive risk mapping of human leptospirosis using support vector machine classification and multilayer perceptron neural network. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 15/06/18 Diagnosis of Human Leptospirosis in a Clinical Setting: Real-Time PCR High Resolution Melting Analysis for Detection of Leptospira at the Onset of Disease.

Ethical considerations The present study followed international ethical guidelines and was evaluated and approved (Ref. HDES/CES/159/2009) by the Health Ethics Committee of the Hospital of Divino Espírito Santo of Ponta Delgada (HDES). The analysis of retrospective samples (serum and urine) from patients suspected of having leptospirosis was exempted from the need to obtain informed consent under the regulations of the Portuguese Data Protection Commission – law 12/2005 article 19, number 6 ( accessed February 22, 2017).

Study design A total of 202 patients were investigated from January 2015 to June 2016 (Supplementary Table S1). Serum and urine were collected in sterile biological containers and processed for molecular detection/confirmation of Leptospira spp. Reference molecular test (conventional nested PCR) Conventional nested PCR was considered the reference standard for Leptospira spp. Statistical analysis. BIOPHOTONICS 30/04/19 Leptospirosis detection using tapered optical fiber biosensor. Left to right: Nurul Hida Zainuddin and Mohd Hanif Yaacob developed a tapered optical fiber biosensor to detect Leptospirosis. Inset: Schematic of the tapered optical fiber coated with aldehyde coatings as a DNA biofunctionalized layer.

By: Mohd Hanif Yaacob Leptospirosisis a deadly disease with common early flu-like symptoms. Leptospirosisin human is caused by bacteria known as Leptospira. The infection is resulted from direct or indirect contact with contaminated urine, water or soil from infected animals especially rodents. Once infected, human has vague clinical signs with other infectious diseases and makes them likely to be under-diagnosed. Researchers from Wireless and Photonics Networks (WiPNET) Research Centre of Excellence, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) has developed a sensitive and specific optical sensing system using tapered optical fiber to detect Leptospira DNA. Author: Mohd Hanif Yaacob. ASTMH - JUL 2018 - Leptospirosis among Returned Travelers: A GeoSentinel Site Survey and Multicenter Analysis—1997–2016. IRANIAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY - AOUT 2011 - Evaluation of pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.

WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTEMENT OF HEALTH - Guideline : Leptospirosis. World Applied Sciences Journal 34 (6): 845-853, 2016 Leptospirosis in Animal and its Public Health Implications: A Review. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 17/07/18 Diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis using multiple laboratory tests and characterization of the isolated strains. Sample collection and inclusion criteria Urine and blood samples were collected from 33 dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis presented to the University of São Paulo Veterinary Hospital Service (Hovet FMVZ-USP) between 2013 and 2016. The dogs were suspected of acute leptospirosis when presenting with high serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels of unknown origin (> 60 mg/dL and 1.4 mg/dL, respectively) in association with two or more clinical manifestations suggestive of leptospirosis (hemorrhagic disorders, fever, vomiting, jaundice, prostration, hyporexia/anorexia).

Dogs presenting with polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss a month prior to the presentation at the veterinary ambulatory were not included in the study in order to rule out chronic kidney disease bias. Leptospiral culturing, PCR and MAT were performed in all suspected dogs at clinical presentation, and samples were collected prior to the institution of antimicrobial therapy. Diagnostic criteria. REV. INST. MED. TROP. SAO PAULO - SEPT/OCT 2014 - HIGH SENSITIVE PCR METHOD FOR DETECTION OF PATHOGENIC Leptospira spp. IN PARAFFIN-EMBEDDED TISSUES. PLOS 18/06/15 Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Microscopic Agglutination Test, IgM-ELISA and IgM Rapid Immunochromatography Test. Abstract Background Leptospirosis is diagnosed on clinical grounds, and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). IgM-ELISA (Serion-Virion) and immunochromatography test (Leptocheck-WB) are two immunodiagnostic assays for leptospirosis.

Their sensitivity, specificity and applicability in Sri Lanka have not been systematically evaluated. Methods Clinically diagnosed leptospirosis patients (n = 919) were recruited from three hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka, during June 2012 to December 2013. Results MAT, IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB positivity were 39.8%, 45.8% and 38.7% respectively during the acute phase. Conclusions Both IgM-ELISA and Leptocheck-WB shows similar sensitivities and specificities. Citation: Niloofa R, Fernando N, de Silva NL, Karunanayake L, Wickramasinghe H, Dikmadugoda N, et al. (2015) Diagnosis of Leptospirosis: Comparison between Microscopic Agglutination Test, IgM-ELISA and IgM Rapid Immunochromatography Test.

Academic Editor: Odir A. Introduction. Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Nov;22(11):1405-1413. Epidemiological and clinical features of leptospirosis in a highly endemic area over three time periods. Ann Agric Environ Med 2017;24(4):671–675 Changes in leptospirosis etiology in animals and humans. CDC EID - FEV 2018 - Effects of Culling on Leptospira interrogans Carriage by Rats. Author affiliations: The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (M.J. Lee, K.A Byers, C.M. Donovan, D.M. Patrick, C.G. Himsworth); Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada (M.J. Lee, K.A Byers, C. Stephen, C.G. Suggested citation for this article Abstract We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans.

Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a reservoir for Leptospira interrogans, the etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease leptospirosis (1). The ecology of rats and the epidemiology of L. interrogans within their populations are intimately connected (4). This study, conducted in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during June 2016–January 2017, compared the prevalence of L. interrogans in rat populations before and after a kill-trapping intervention.

Mr. Acknowledgments References Guerra MA. Figures Tables. JOURNAL OF MICROBIAL & BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY - 2016 - Scrub Typhus and Leptospirosis: The fallacy of Diagnosing with IgM Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay. PLOS 15/09/17 Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay. Abstract Background With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5–10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge.

Methodology Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors. Principal findings Conclusions Author summary Introduction Methods Ethics statement.

PLOS 07/07/16 Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence. Abstract Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection. Methodology/Principal Findings This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links micronutrient status and Leptospira infection. Conclusions/Significance Few prospective studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to date to examine the potential role of micronutrients in Leptospira infection. Citation: Herman HS, Mehta S, Cárdenas WB, Stewart-Ibarra AM, Finkelstein JL (2016) Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence.

Introduction. APIINDIA - 2017 - Leptospirosis in Current Status. KARNATAKA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 23/08/16 LEPTOSPIROSIS – AN ENIGMATIC ZOONOSIS. VETERINARY WORLD 20/05/17 Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. Research (Published online: 20-05-2017) 11. Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis A. Sathiyamoorthy, G. Selvaraju, K. M. Palanivel and P. Veterinary World, 10(5): 530-535 A. G. K. P. Doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.530-535 Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn] Article history: Received: 20-10-2016, Accepted: 04-04-2017, Published online: 20-05-2017 Corresponding author: A. E-mail: Citation: Sathiyamoorthy A, Selvaraju G, Palanivel KM, Srinivasan P (2017) Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of canine leptospirosis, Veterinary World, 10(5): 530-535.

Abstract Aim: This study was taken up to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) for screening antibodies against Leptospira spp. in canines. Results: Out of 250 sera samples, 140 (56.00%) were found to be positive by i-ELISA. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. BMC Microbiology 03/05/17 Simultaneous detection of chikungunya virus, dengue virus and human pathogenic Leptospira genomes using a multiplex TaqMan® assay. PJMHS - OCT/DEC 2016 - Comparative Seropositivity Against Leptospirosis Between Rice Cultivators and Non Rice Cultivators.

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AGRARIAN SCIENCES OF UKRAINE - 2016 - JOURNAL FOR VETERINARY MEDICINE, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOSAFETY THE VALIDATION OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DIAGNOSIS LEPTOSPIROSIS AMONG DOGS, PIGS AND CATTLE. BMC 24/08/16 Utility of modified Faine’s criteria in diagnosis of leptospirosis. PLOS 03/08/16 An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples. PLOS 12/11/15 Leptospira and Bats: Story of an Emerging Friendship. PLOS 07/11/14 Sensitive Real-Time PCR Detection of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. and a Comparison of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods for the Diagnosis of Leptospirosis. BMC Veterinary Research | Abstract | Identification of immunodominant antigens in canine leptospirosis by Multi-Antigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA) Lung India. 2012 Oct-Dec; 29(4): 347–353. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis. THIRD INTERNATIONAL EPIZOOTIOLOGY DAYS & XV SERBIAN EPIZOOTIOLOGY DAYS PROCEEDINGS - MAI 2013 - Au sommaire:LEPTOSPIROSIS IN PIG.

International Journal of Microbiological Research (IJMR) Volume 4 Number (2), 2013 Global Epidemiological Overview of Leptospiro. Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.44 no.1 São Paulo 2013 Characterization of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from an aba. PLOS 07/11/14 Sensitive Real-Time PCR Detection of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. and a Comparison of Nucleic Acid Amplification Met. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2008 Jan-Jun; 1(1): 21–33. Leptospirosis: The “mysterious” mimic.

INTECH - AVRIL 2012 - Zoonosis. Au sommaire: Insights into Leptospirosis, a Neglected Disease. INTECH - MARS 2012 - Au sommaire: Leptospirosis: Epidemiologic Factors, Pathophysiological and Immunopathogenic. UNIVERSIDAD ZARAGOZA via EFSA - 2012 - Inventory of available data and data sources and proposal for data collection on vector-b.

Veterinary World - Vol.1 No.6 June 2008 Leptospirosis : a re-emerging disease. Leptospirosis - Wikipedia. UNIVERSIDADE DE SAO PAULO - 2008 - Patogênese da síndrome pulmonar hemorrágica na leptospirose humana. OMS - 2009 - The Global Burden of Leptospirosis. Braz J Infect Dis vol.11 no.1 Salvador Feb. 2007 Au sommaire: Pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary manifestations in lepto. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.17 no.2 Botucatu 2011 Interactions between environment, wild animals and human leptos. INDIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY - 2006 - Leptospirosis: Current status and future trends. Sheep a major source of leptospirosis infection. J Vet Med Sci. 2009 Sep;71(9):1191-9. Nationwide survey of leptospira antibodies in dogs in Japan: results from microscopic aggl. Veterinary World - Volume 2 No.7 July 2009 Leptospriosis in sheep and its diagnosis. INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES - 2012 - Serological Evidence of Exposure to Leptospira spp. in Veterinary.