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VET RECORD 11/09/20 Risk-based surveillance for bluetongue virus in cattle on the south coast of England in 2017 and 2018. Introduction Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease of ruminants and camelids transmitted between hosts by certain species of Culicoides biting midges.

VET RECORD 11/09/20 Risk-based surveillance for bluetongue virus in cattle on the south coast of England in 2017 and 2018

BT was not reported in northwest Europe until 2006, when a serotype 8 strain of virus (BTV-8) was discovered in the Netherlands. In subsequent years, cases of BT were reported in France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark and the Czech Republic,7 resulting in the most costly outbreak of the virus in recorded history.8 The virus was reported in the UK for the first time in September 2007.9 The disease was controlled through a combination of vaccination, movement restrictions, vector control and surveillance. A total of 137 affected holdings were reported in southern England in 2007.10 In accordance with the legislative requirements at the time, active and passive surveillance to demonstrate disease freedom continued after the outbreak for two years.

Methods Se = 1 – {1 – Ph x [1 – (1 – Pw)nW ]}nH Results. FRONT. VET. SCI. 27/11/19 Bluetongue disease control in Northern Ireland during 2017 and 2018. 1Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), United Kingdom 2Sustainable Agri-Food Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), United Kingdom 3Trade, Epizootics and Official controls Division, Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), United Kingdom 4Newtownards Divisional Veterinary Office, Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), United Kingdom 5Atmospheric Dispersion and Air Quality Group, Met Office, United Kingdom 6Atmospheric Dispersion & Air Quality, Met Office, United Kingdom 7Virological Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), United Kingdom 8Department of Virology, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), United Kingdom.

FRONT. VET. SCI. 27/11/19 Bluetongue disease control in Northern Ireland during 2017 and 2018

DEFRA 14/08/14 Bluetongue: GB disease control strategy. Revue d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux, 62 (2-4) : 135. 2009 Vector competence of British Culicoides spec. GOVERNMENT VETERINARY JOURNAL - N°2/2009 - Au sommaire:The rise and fall of bluetongue in the EU, 2005-2009. FCOINFO 06/06/10 La Grande Bretagne classée en zone de risque inférieur vis-à-vis du BTV-8.

FCO INFO 15/05/09 Tour d’horizon de la fièvre catarrhale en Europe au 6 mai 2009. Face à des situations épidémiologiques très diverses, le Royaume-Uni, la Suède et la France se sont engagés dans des stratégies de surveillance et de contrôle extrêmement différentes. Royaume-Uni : absence de circulation virale depuis juin 2008 Situation épidémiologique Au Royaume-Uni, 138 foyers de fièvre catarrhale de sérotype 8 (chez des ruminants autochtones) ont été détectés depuis 2007 : en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles : 68 cas en 2007 et 70 début 2008, en Ecosse : pas de foyer notifié ; un seul cas importé en 2007 (réformé) ; pas de mise en évidence d’une circulation virale en Irlande du Nord : pas de foyer notifié. Tous les foyers recensés sont apparus avant juillet 2008 et ont été attribués à la circulation du virus de 2007 .

En novembre 2008, un premier cas de fièvre catarrhale imputable au virus de sérotype 1 a été décelé sur un animal importé . Campagne vaccinale : obligatoire en Ecosse, basée sur le volontariat en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles Situation épidémiologique. DEFRA 24/09/14 FCO Legal Directorate annual report 2014 to 2015. DEFRA - Bluetongue: Surveillance & control. Control strategy Government is working closely with a core group of industry stakeholders to decide on actions necessary to combat Bluetongue disease.

DEFRA - Bluetongue: Surveillance & control

To this end a policy statement and supporting rationale and economic assessment has been agreed. This sets out the strategy and priorities for the winter period. The UK remains committed to a disease control approach which aims to contain disease within the current restricted zones. Defra has been working in partnership with the farming industry and Devolved Administrations to revise the UK Bluetongue Control Strategy. The measures set out in legislation are aimed at preventing disease spread through, for example, restriction of animal movement and through vector control measures. Veterinary investigation on suspect premises, and restrictions which includes a ban on movement of susceptible animals on and off the premises. In partnership with industry, we will be issuing guidance on the likely effectiveness of such measures.

DEFRA - JUNE 2015 - Risk assessment for Bluetongue Virus (BTV) entry into the United Kingdom - Qualitative risk assessment.