CDC EID - JANV 2019 - Zoonotic Source Attribution of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Using Genomic Surveillance Data, United States. Shaokang Zhang, Shaoting Li, Weidong Gu, Henk den Bakker, Dave Boxrud, Angie Taylor, Chandler Roe, Elizabeth Driebe, David M. Engelthaler, Marc Allard, Eric Brown, Patrick McDermott, Shaohua Zhao, Beau B. Bruce, Eija Trees, Patricia I. Fields, and Xiangyu Deng Author affiliations: University of Georgia Center for Food Safety, Griffin, Georgia, USA (S. Suggested citation for this article Abstract Increasingly, routine surveillance and monitoring of foodborne pathogens using whole-genome sequencing is creating opportunities to study foodborne illness epidemiology beyond routine outbreak investigations and case–control studies. Each year, 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness occur in the United States (1).
Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens worldwide, causing >1 million human cases and an economic burden of $3.7 billion annually in the United States alone (1,2). Figure 1 Figure 1. Population Structure Figure 2 Figure 2. Source Prediction Using WGS Figure 3. CDC EID - DEC 2018 - Restaurant Inspection Letter Grades and Salmonella Infections, New York, New York, USA. Melanie J. Firestone and Craig W. Hedberg Author affiliations: University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Minnesota Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence, Minneapolis Suggested citation for this article Abstract Rates of Salmonella infection in the United States have not changed over the past 20 years.
Each year, an estimated 48 million persons get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die from foodborne illness in the United States (1). Food service establishments play a role in the epidemiology of Salmonella infections; Salmonella may contaminate a wide range of raw ingredients, infect food workers, survive on contaminated surfaces, and grow in improperly held food items.
New York does not have a statewide policy for reporting restaurant inspection results. The value of posting restaurant inspection ratings at the point of service has been the subject of considerable debate. Data Salmonella infections are nationally notifiable (12). Figure Ms. FDA 26/01/16 FDA Investigates Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Poona Linked to Cucumbers.
Sign Up for Email Updates March 24, 2016 On this page: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state and local officials investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Poona infections. The FDA moved quickly to investigate this issue and learned as much as possible to prevent additional people from becoming ill. Update: March 18, 2016 According to the CDC, the outbreak appears to be over as of March 18, 2016. What was the Problem and What was Done About It? The FDA, CDC, and state and local officials investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Poona linked to “slicer” cucumbers, supplied by Andrew and Williamson Fresh Produce and grown in Baja, Mexico. According to the CDC, as of March 18, 2016, 907 people infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Poona have been reported from 40 states.
Among 720 people with available information, 204 (28 percent) reported being hospitalized. Back to top Related Recalls and Warnings. PLOS 23/12/15 Salmonella enterica Infections in the United States and Assessment of Coefficients. Abstract Background Despite control efforts, salmonellosis continues to cause an estimated 1.2 million infections in the United States (US) annually. We describe the incidence of salmonellosis in the US and introduce a novel approach to examine the epidemiologic similarities and differences of individual serotypes. Methods Cases of salmonellosis in humans reported to the laboratory-based National Salmonella Surveillance System during 1996–2011 from US states were included. Results During 1996–2011, more than 600,000 Salmonella isolates from humans were reported, with an average annual incidence of 13.1 cases/100,000 persons.
Conclusions Although overall incidence rates of Salmonella did not change over time, trends and epidemiological factors differed remarkably by serotype. Editor: Vishnu Chaturvedi, California Department of Public Health, UNITED STATES Received: June 1, 2015; Accepted: December 3, 2015; Published: December 23, 2015 Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. FOODSAFETY_GOV 15/01/15 Sneaky Salmonella: It’s Common, Costly, and Preventable (infographie présentant les principaux indicateurs aux USA) Use the link to download the Salmonella by the Numbers Infographic.
Each year, roughly 1 in 6 people in the United States gets sick from eating contaminated food. Each of those illnesses represents something that went wrong somewhere along the farm to table pathway. Behind these illnesses are familiar culprits (like Salmonella) and causes (like poor food safety practices in farms, factories, restaurants, or homes). Salmonella are bacteria that cause over one million illnesses each year. How does Salmonella get into foods? Simply put—it gets into food through the poop of animals, such as cows, birds, and mice.
Contamination can also occur where food is being made. What foods does Salmonella get into? One reason why it’s tough to reduce Salmonella infections is because the germ makes its way into so many different types of foods. What can be done? You can’t smell or see Salmonella in or on food. Follow the tried-and-true behaviors of CLEAN, SEPARATE, COOK, and CHILL. JUIN 2013 - National Enteric Disease Surveillance: Salmonella Annual Report, 2010. CDC EID - AOUT 2013 - Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008. INTECH - JANV 2012 - Salmonella - A Dangerous Foodborne PathogenAu sommaire:The Burden of Salmonellosis in the United States. Edited by Barakat S. M. Mahmoud, ISBN 978-953-307-782-6, 450 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published January 20, 2012 under CC BY 3.0 licenseDOI: 10.5772/1308 More than 2,500 serotypes of Salmonella exist. However, only some of these serotypes have been frequently associated with food-borne illnesses.
Salmonella is the second most dominant bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Often, most people who suffer from Salmonella infections have temporary gastroenteritis, which usually does not require treatment. Chapter 1 The Burden of Salmonellosis in the United Statesby Patricia L. CDC MMWR 24/12/10 Salmonella Montevideo Infections Associated with Salami Products Made with Contaminated Imported Black and Red.
BMC - 2009 - Geographic variations and temporal trends of Salmonella-associated hospitalization in the U.S. elderly, 1991-2004: Is the HACCP regulation associated with lower salmonellosis rates? It is important to realize that the raw difference in divisional rates is not the outcome of interest for two reasons: (i) the rate of hospitalization is not just a function of disease prevalence but also of other factors, such as the number of hospital beds per citizen, practices of disease coding, and health-seeking behaviors, (ii) the implementation of the HACCP regulation studied here was very unlikely to have impacted on the divisional medical infrastructure, in this analysis, we chose to focus on the change of hospitalization rates in the pre- and post-HACCP period within each division, and it is these changing patterns that we wish to compare and contrast.
The change of hospitalization rates before and after the HACCP was unequal across the divisions. Why are the divisions different? How can seasonality analysis inform health prevention strategies further? Limitations of this study. CSPI 21/11/05 Salmonella Outbreaks Linked to Produce on the Rise. Produce is Primary Cause of Large Salmonella Outbreaks November 21, 2005 Most people properly associate Salmonella with raw poultry.
But according to an analysis of food-poisoning outbreaks by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, fresh produce is catching up with chicken as a major culprit of Salmonella infections. And, says CSPI, produce-related outbreaks tend to be larger than poultry-related outbreaks, and sicken more people, sometimes hundreds at a time. In CSPI’s Outbreak Alert! “Fresh fruits and vegetables are at the center of a healthy diet, so it’s critical that steps are taken to improve their safety,” said CSPI food safety director Caroline Smith DeWaal. Although produce outbreaks were responsible for the most illnesses, seafood was responsible for more outbreaks, 899, than any other food, but only 9,312 illnesses.
Salmonella isn’t the only pathogen that ends up on produce. CSPI’s report, “Outbreak Alert! CDC MMWR 04/07/03 Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Typhimurium Infections Associated with Drinking Unpasteurized Milk. On December 10, 2002, the Clark County Combined Health District and the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) were notified of two hospitalized children infected with Salmonella Enterica serotype Typhimurium. Initial investigation implicated consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk purchased at a local combination dairy-restaurant (dairy) during November 27--December 13, 2002, as the cause. This report summarizes the subsequent investigation. Because 27 states still allow the sale of raw milk, and organizations continue their efforts to allow marketing and sale of raw milk to the public directly from the farm (1,2), consumer education about the hazards of raw milk and a careful review of existing policies are needed.
The dairy comprised a working dairy farm, restaurant, snack bar, and petting zoo with goats, cows, calves, lambs, and pigs. At the time of the epidemiologic investigation in December 2002, the workforce comprised 211 workers, including 16 members of the owner family. A case of S. CDC MMWR 03/01/03 Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infection Associated with Eating Shell Eggs --- United States, 19. A Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) epidemic emerged in the 1980s, when increasing numbers of infections were detected in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States (1).
In the early 1990s, while SE rates in the Northeast began to decline, the SE epidemic expanded to the Pacific region (2). Nationwide, the number of SE isolates reported to CDC peaked at 3.8 per 100,000 population in 1995. Although rates of culture-confirmed SE infection reported to CDC declined to 1.9 by 1999 (Figure 1), rates did not decline further through 2001, and outbreaks continue to occur. Investigations of outbreaks and sporadic cases have indicated repeatedly that, when a food vehicle is identified, the most common sources of SE infection are undercooked and raw shell eggs (3,4).
South Carolina, 2001 During February--March 2001, outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurred among inmates in four prison facilities of the South Carolina Department of Corrections (SCDC). North Carolina, 2001 Box. CDC MMWR 22/11/02 Multistate Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Poona Infections Associated with Eating Cantaloupe from Mexico --- Three multistate outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Poona infections associated with eating cantaloupe imported from Mexico occurred in the spring of consecutive years during 2000--2002. In each outbreak, the isolates had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns; the PFGE patterns observed in the 2000 and 2002 outbreaks were indistinguishable, but the pattern from 2001 was unique among them.
Outbreaks were identified first by the California Department of Health Services (2000 and 2001) and the Washington State Department of Health (2002) and involved residents of 12 states and Canada. This report describes the investigations, which led ultimately to an import alert on cantaloupes from Mexico. To limit the potential for cantaloupe contamination, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continues to work with the Mexican government on a food-safety program for the production, packing, and shipping of fresh cantaloupes.
. , Penny M. Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †U.S. Suggested citation for this article Abstract Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis emerged as an important illness during the 1980s. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most common Salmonella serotypes worldwide, particularly in developed countries. The number of outbreaks of S. We examined trends in S. Methods. Salmonella Annual Summary 2006. JDLE 15/10/14 Etats-Unis: 15,6 milliards de dollars pour les infections alimentaires. La salmonellose, infection la plus coûteusedr Chaque année, les infections alimentaires coûtent aux Etats-Unis 15,6 milliards de dollars (12,2 Md€), en traitements et en pertes de productivité, révèle une nouvelle estimation publiée le 7 octobre par le département américain à l’agriculture (USDA). Mené sur les 15 pathogènes alimentaires les plus fréquents, ce nouveau bilan confirme la première place des salmonelles, d’un coût annuel de 3,67 Md$ (2,87 Md€).
Elles sont suivies par Toxoplasma gondii pour la toxoplasmose (3,3 Md$), et Listeria monocytogenes pour la listériose (2,8 Md$). En 4e position, les norovirus (2,55 Md$), pathogènes les plus fréquents mais bénins, suivis des Campylobacter (1,93 Md$). Plus souvent mortelle mais bien moins fréquente, l’Escherichia coli O157, souvent liée à la viande hachée, pèse 271 M$ (212 M€). Quant à ses cousines non-O157, leur facture est de 27 M$ (21 M€). Comme toute estimation épidémiologique, ces chiffres sont à prendre avec des pincettes.