ANIMALS 21/03/21 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Exposure to Equine Coronavirus in Apparently Healthy Horses in Israel. Open AccessArticle Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H.
IFCE VIA YOUTUBE 09/09/20 Le coronavirus équin une affection du poulain - Sophie Le Poder. Virology Volume 369, Issue 1, 5 December 2007, Genomic characterization of equine coronavirus. Almazan et al., 2004 F.
Almazan, C. Galan, L. EnjuanesThe nucleoprotein is required for efficient coronavirus genome replication J. Altschul et al., 1997 S.F. Nucleic Acids Res., 25 (17) (1997), pp. 3389-3402 Balasuriya et al., 2004 U.B. J. Ballesteros et al., 1997 M.L. Virology, 227 (2) (1997), pp. 378-388 Barretto et al., 2005 N. J. THEHORSE 20/03/18 Researchers Narrow Down Equine Coronavirus Risk Factors. Pusterla explained that there’s been a steady increase—from 4% to about 9%—in laboratory-confirmed coronavirus cases in adult horses since 2010 (when scientists introduced the qPCR diagnostic test for coronavirus to the United States).
“About one in 10 horses in the United States will test positive for coronavirus, but fewer than 20% of those will show signs,” he said. The disease is widespread and occurs more frequently in colder months, he said, “likely due to husbandry changes and an increase in young stock on the ground (coronavirus is commonly found in foals).” Explosive outbreaks of this highly contagious disease, which is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, often occur at boarding facilities. Fortunately, mortality rates are low. Journal of Virological Methods Volumes 215–216, April 2015, Rapid detection of equine coronavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
BEVA 25/10/15 Equine coronavirus: An emerging enteric virus of adult horses. Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is an emerging virus associated clinically and epidemiologically with fever, depression, anorexia and less frequently colic and diarrhoea in adult horses.
Sporadic cases and outbreaks have been reported with increased frequency since 2010 from Japan, the USA and more recently from Europe. A faeco‐oral transmission route is suspected and clinical or asymptomatic infected horses appear to be responsible for direct and indirect transmission of ECoV. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of ECoV infection may be suggested by clinical presentation, haematological abnormalities such as leucopenia due to lymphopenia and/or neutropenia. Confirmation of ECoV infection is provided by specific ECoV nucleic acid detection in faeces by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or demonstration of coronavirus antigen by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy in intestinal biopsy material obtained ante or post mortem. HORSETALK 31/10/19 Equine Coronavirus is circulating in Ireland, researchers find.
Equine Coronavirus (ECoV) is circulating in Ireland’s horses and foals, researchers report.
It is the first detection of the virus in the country, with Ireland becoming the third European country with a significant horse industry where the virus has been detected, based on testing in horses with intestinal disease. ECoV infection can cause fever, loss of appetite, lethagy and diarrhoea. It can also cause respiratory problems. Scientists believe it spreads through horse’s mouths coming into contact with the dung of infected horses. The infection has been identified in horses in 48 American states. For their study, Manabu Nemoto, Warren Schofield and Ann Cullinane tested 424 clinical samples – faecal samples and rectal swabs – from equids with gut-related disease. Molecular-based testing revealed that five samples (1.2%) collected in 2011 and 2013 tested positive for ECoV.
JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 14/11/18 Disease features of equine coronavirus and enteric salmonellosis are similar in horses. VIRUSES 30/11/19 Development and Validation of a S1 Protein-Based ELISA for the Specific Detection of Antibodies against Equine Coronavirus. Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered to be involved in enteric diseases in foals.
Recently, several outbreaks of ECoV infection have also been reported in adult horses from the USA, France and Japan. Epidemiological studies of ECoV infection are still limited, and the seroprevalence of ECoV infection in Europe is unknown. In this study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method utilizing ECoV spike S1 protein was developed in two formats, and further validated by analyzing 27 paired serum samples (acute and convalescent sera) from horses involved in an ECoV outbreak and 1084 sera of horses with unknown ECoV exposure. Both formats showed high diagnostic accuracy compared to virus neutralization (VN) assay. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the best cut-off values for both ELISA formats, assuming a test specificity of 99%. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1.
VIRUSES 14/10/19 The First Detection of Equine Coronavirus in Adult Horses and Foals in Ireland. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of equine coronavirus (ECoV) in clinical samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Ireland.
A total of 424 clinical samples were examined from equids with enteric disease in 24 Irish counties between 2011 and 2015. A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ECoV RNA. Nucleocapsid, spike and the region from the p4.7 to p12.7 genes of positive samples were sequenced, and sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Five samples (1.2%) collected in 2011 and 2013 tested positive for ECoV. Positive samples were collected from adult horses, Thoroughbred foals and a donkey foal. ►▼ Show Figures Figure 1 This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 20/02/19 Evaluation of equine coronavirus fecal shedding among hospitalized horses.
Equine coronavirus (ECoV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, is a single‐stranded, positive sense, enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus associated with outbreaks of enteric disease in adult horses.1, 2 Infection with ECoV reportedly causes fever, lethargy, colic, or diarrhea of variable severity in adult horses.1, 3 Hyperammonemic encephalopathy also has been reported.3 Morbidity and mortality range from 10% to 83%1-4 and from 7% to 27%,1-4 respectively.
Historically, electron microscopy (EM) was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of coronavirus in feces.5, 6 Because of the expertise and equipment required for this technique and its inability to characterize viruses beyond the family level, EM has been augmented in clinical settings by real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as this test provides a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to document the presence of ECoV in feces of horses.1 2.1 Study design Prospective, Descriptive study. 2.2 Animals. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 15/10/14 Disease Associated with Equine Coronavirus Infection and High Case Fatality Rate. Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Features, and Virology Testing Available clinical examination and clinicopathological data for animals from both outbreaks (CA and ID) are combined in Table 1.
The total number of horses in each farm was 19 (CA) and 8 (ID). ECoV testing was performed with all horses for a total of 27 animals from both farms combined (19 from CA and 8 from ID). Fifteen of the animals (56%) tested positive. 10 of the 15 animals (67%) testing positive (6 from CA and 4 from ID) manifested clinical disease including but not limited to colic, fevers, lethargy, and inappetance, while 5 (33%) of 15 positive animals remained asymptomatic. Four of the horses positive for ECoV (27%) tested negative for S. enterica, C. difficile, C. perfringens, L. intracellularis, and N. risticii.
In the CA outbreak, the first horse displayed clinical signs including fevers (39.2°C), lethargy, and inappetance approximately 9 days after leaving the competition. Veterinary Microbiology Volume 162, Issue 1, 22 February 2013, Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL SCIENCE 01/05/13 Epidemic of Equine Coronavirus at Obihiro Racecourse, Hokkaido, Japan in 2012. 38ème Journée de la Recherche Equine Jeudi 1er mars 2012 Première détection du coronavirus équin en France. THE HORSE 07/01/20 What Is Equine Coronavirus?
Preventing ECoV Infection Like many equine infectious diseases, particularly those caused by viruses, the most important strategy for avoiding infection is appropriate disease control and biosecurity strategies (TheHorse.com/biosecurity-tips).
“Standard strategies that would be used for any type of equine disease outbreak, such as equine herpesvirus outbreaks, are advocated,” says Weese.