ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 12/05/20 Evaluation of the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with porcine deltacoronavirus. Abstract Although porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a significant pandemic threat in the swine population and has caused significant economic losses, information regarding the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV is scarce.
Hence, the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV was assessed after challenge and rechallenge. After the first challenge, obvious diarrhea and viral shedding developed successively in all pigs in the four inoculation dose groups from 3 to 14 days postinfection (dpi), and all pigs recovered (no clinical symptoms or viral shedding) by 21 dpi. J Vet Sci. 2020 Jan;21(1):e12. Assessment of hemagglutination activity of porcine deltacoronavirus. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), a member of the Deltacoronavirus genus, causes diarrhea and vomiting in pigs of any age .
The clinical symptoms of PDCoV are similar to those of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), but the mortality rates are lower in PDCoV-affected nursing pigs . PDCoV was first identified in pigs in Hong Kong in 2012, while the first PDCoV outbreak in swine herds was reported in the United States in 2014 . Subsequently, PDCoV was detected in Canada, South Korea, mainland China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam, indicating that it is widespread among the world's pig populations; moreover, PDCoV can have devastating effects on the swine industry .
However, no treatments or vaccines are available for PDCoV. Hemagglutinin, an envelope glycoprotein of some enveloped viruses, can adsorb to erythrocytes. As PDCoV is a newly emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus, it is unclear whether PDCoV has HA activity. NATIONAL HOG FARMER 15/01/20 Researchers find PDCoV can easily transmit to healthy poultry. Researchers from The Ohio State University have determined that porcine deltacoronavirusus has the potential to jump to other species, specifically healthy chickens and turkeys.
The researchers who led this work were part of a team that previously found in a lab setting that the virus could infect cells from multiple species, including chickens and humans. In this study, birds that were given the virus developed diarrhea by two days after infection. Healthy birds housed with infected chickens and turkeys also developed diarrhea two days after exposure. That rapid spread of disease surprised the Ohio State University scientists. "We weren't even sure the virus would transmit from bird to bird. CDC EID - FEV 2020 - Porcine Deltacoronavirus Infection and Transmission in Poultry, United States.
PIG333 11/12/19 Pirbright study uncovers replication sites of emerging pig disease. A recent study carried out at The Pirbright Institute has uncovered the sites within the cell where porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) makes new copies of itself during replication.
Using electron microscopy, Pirbright scientists demonstrated that the virus creates replication organelles that are similar to other coronaviruses. Establishing that this step in the virus life cycle is consistent across the virus family could facilitate the development of broad-spectrum control methods to tackle the diseases they cause.
Identified in 2012, PDCoV is an emerging Deltacoronavirus that infects pigs and causes severe diarrhoea and can lead to the death of piglets. Replication sites created by viruses during infection, known as replication organelles, have been well characterised in the other three genera of the coronavirus family (Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronavirus). MRCVS_CO_UK 12/12/19 Study reveals replication sites of emerging pig disease - porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) Research could be used in the development of vaccines.
Confirms structures are similar to those in same virus family The sites within the cell where porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) makes new copies of itself during replication have been uncovered, in a study carried out at The Pirbright Institute. According to a statement, the research confirmed that PDCoV uses the host cell’s machinery to create two different structures that form the replication organelle. These structures are very similar to those created by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a Gammacoronavirus that causes debilitating disease in chickens. Using electron microscopy, Pirbright researchers where able to confirm their prediction that the structures formed by PDCoV when replicating would be comparable to those formed in replication sites in the other three genera of the coronavirus family – which have already been well defined.
JBC Papers 08/05/19 Porcine deltacoronavirus enters cells via two pathways: A protease-mediated one at the cell surface and another facilitated by cathepsins in the endosome. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY - 2017 - Thèse en ligne : Emerging swine enteric coronaviruses: Comparison of pathogenicity and antibody response. Abstract Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) recently emerged in the U.S. swine population resulting in an estimated loss of $481 - $929 million U.S. dollars in 2013-14.
Both PEDV and PDCoV cause diarrheic disease resulting in dehydration, weight loss, and sometimes death. Although pigs of all ages are susceptible to these viruses, suckling piglets suffer the most severe disease. Current Opinion in Virology Volume 34, February 2019, Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in pigs. E.N.
WoodAn apparently new syndrome of porcine epidemic diarrhoea Vet Rec, 100 (1977), pp. 243-244 D. Sun, X. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 16/04/19 Expression profile analysis of 5-day-old neonatal piglets infected with porcine Deltacoronavirus. Since PDCoV being identified in 2009 in HongKong, many studies had focused locally on the virus characterization and evolution [1–4].
To fill the gap of interaction between virus and host, particularly the correlation analysis between clinical symptoms and differential expressed host genes, 5-day-old piglets were orally challenged with PDCoV strain, CHN-GD16–05, and used for mRNA expression profile analysis in this study. Clinical symptoms, diarrhea, vomiting and mental depression, of pigs were observed as early as the third day after the PDCoV challenge. 3/20 pigs died and the others began to recovery after 11 days.
The intestine of diarrhea pig after dissection was found to be filled with water and its wall became almost paper-thin. The highest PDCoV load determined by qPCR was located in the ileum, followed by jejunum, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes, which differs from PEDV that concentrates in posterior jejunum . But the mechanism of it needs further study. BMC Veterinary Research 11/04/19 Analysis of long non-coding RNAs in neonatal piglets at different stages of porcine deltacoronavirus infection.
PDCoV infects pigs of all ages, but primarily causes diarrhea in newborn pigs.
Clinically, PDCoV infection is similar to porcine intestinal coronavirus, but PDCoV infection has a wider tissue tropism and can be detected in organs other than the digestive tract. This suggests a complex pathogenic mechanism for this virus and an in-depth understanding of its pathogenic and immune mechanisms is necessary for infection control. Current lncRNA research has focused on human medicine including cardiovascular disease and cancer [17–19]. In livestock and poultry, examination of lncRNAs is in its infancy and existing research has focused on muscle, bone and embryonic development as well as fat metabolism [20–22].
Additionally, these studies have focused on lncRNA regulation of protein-coding genes. Recent studies have shown that viral infections can induce lncRNAs to promote or inhibit viral responses. FRONT. VET. SCI. 28/01/19 PEDV and PDCoV pathogenesis: the interplay between host innate immune responses and porcine enteric coronaviruses. 1National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Thailand Enteropathogenic porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), members of the coronavirus family, account for the majority of lethal watery diarrhea in neonatal pigs in the past decade.
These two viruses pose significant economic and public health burdens, even as both continue to emerge and reemerge worldwide. The ability to evade, circumvent or subvert the host’s first line of defense, namely the innate immune system, is the key determinant for pathogen virulence, survival, and the establishment of successful infection. Unfortunately, we have only started to unravel the underlying viral mechanisms used to manipulate host innate immune responses. NATURE 07/09/17 Virulence of current German PEDV strains in suckling pigs and investigation of protective effects of maternally derived antibodies. Clinical and pathological observations Clinical signs upon inoculation of sows Two sows, which were inoculated with a cell culture-adapted PEDV strain (PEDV EU, group A1) showed slight depression over a period of four days, accompanied by reduced feed intake.
In contrast, the two sows of group B1 (inoculated with German field PEDV, DE) showed diarrhea and vomiting upon inoculation. Moreover, both sows were anorectic for one day. Thereafter, one of the sows (ear tag 6150) was still showing slight depression over four days whereas the other was free of clinical signs again. All four sows of groups A2 and B2, which stayed naïve prior to farrowing, remained healthy during the pre-farrowing time.
Deltacoronavirus porcin au Canada. Deltacoronavirus porcin en Chine. CABI 17/05/18 Porcine deltacoronavirus: potential for cross-species transmission? Emerging coronavirus can infect human cells in the laboratory Researchers have found that Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) efficiently infects cultured cells of other species, including humans and chickens. The discovery raises concerns about the potential for cross-species transmission. Researchers at The Ohio State University and Utrecht University collaborated to better understand the new virus and its potential reach.
Their findings are published in PNAS. J Vet Sci. 2018 Jul; 19(4): 577–581. Isolation and characterization of Korean porcine deltacoronavirus strain KNU16-07. John Blue via YOUTUBE 22/12/14 Dr. Dick Hesse - Porcine Deltacoronavirus - Koch's Postulates Fulfilled. UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA - 2018 - Dissertation en ligne : Investigations into the Pathogenesis and Characteristics of Novel Swine Enteric Coronaviruses. OSU_EDU 14/05/18 New pig virus found to be a potential threat to humans.
UMN_EDU - MAI 2018 - Thèse en ligne : Management And Feeding Strategies To Reduce The Impact Of Porcine Delta Coronavirus In Nursery Pigs. NEWSWEEK 15/05/18 PORCINE DELTACORONAVIRUS: DEADLY PIG VIRUS COULD JUMP TO HUMANS, SCIENTISTS WARN. Scientists fear that a recently identified pig virus could infect people, after it was found to hijack human cells in lab tests. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in 2012 in pigs in China, but was not linked to a disease at that time.
By 2014, was detected for the first time in the U.S. during a pig diarrhea outbreak in Ohio, and has since been reported in several other countries. The disease can cause acute diarrhea and vomiting in young pigs, and can be fatal. It has not infected other animals but experts are particularly concerned by its similarity to the viruses which caused the SARS and MERS outbreaks. According to the World Health Organization, the SARS outbreak of 2002 and 2003—which started in China and killed 774 people—while the ongoing MERS outbreak in Saudi Arabia has claimed more than 700 lives.
Dr. A piglet is seen at a pig farm on the outskirts of Beijing, on June 5, 2017. Dr. "A receptor is like a lock in the door. However, Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. Emerging Microbes & Infections 11/04/18 Contribution of porcine aminopeptidase N to porcine deltacoronavirus infection. UNIVERSITY OF MAINE - MAY 2014 - Questions and Answers: Swine Enteric Coronavirus Diseases Monitoring and Control Program. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services, May 2014 In response to the significant impact swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD), including Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PEDv) and Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), are having on the U.S. pork industry, USDA issued a Federal Order on June 5, 2014.
USDA also announced $26.2 million in funding to combat these diseases. USDA, States, herd veterinarians, and producers will collaborate to manage the diseases in a manner that supports business continuity for commercial pork producers and maintains a plentiful supply of pork for consumers. There are two basic requirements of the Federal Order. UMN_EDU 15/06/18 Herd level prevalence and incidence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCoV) in swine herds in Ontario, Canada.
Genome Announc. January 2018 vol. 6 no. 4 Complete Genome Sequences of Two Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains, CHN-GD16-03 and CHN-GD16-05, Isolated in Southern China, 2016. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes enteric, respiratory, and other diseases, such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), in vivo in pigs. It was first detected in Hong Kong, China (1), and emerged later in the United States (2–4). It has now spread to South Korea, mainland China, and several countries of Southeast Asia (5–9), causing economic losses to the global commercial swine industry.
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Apr;65(2):363-369. Detection and genetic characterization of porcine deltacoronavirus in Tibetan pigs surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. Arch Virol. 2018 Jan;163(1) A novel strain of porcine deltacoronavirus in Vietnam. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016 Jun;63(3):248-52. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus in Korean Swine Farms, 2015. ENVA - 2017 - Thèse en ligne : CORONAVIRUS SPÉCIFIQUES ET TRANSMISSIONS INTERSPÉCIFIQUES. NATIONAL HOG FARMER 22/11/17 Hard lessons have been learned with PEDV, PDCoV.
By Aaron Lower, Carthage Veterinary ServicesThe industry is embarking on its fifth winter of managing porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus. As we move into our seasonal epidemic, it is important to review the key exclusion and management principles that we have learned over the past five years. We have learned some hard lessons as an industry.
PLOS 24/05/17 Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients. Abstract. Kansas State University VIA YOUTUBE 26/11/14 Delta Corona Virus and PEDv: What Have We Learned in the Last Year? IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY via YOUTUBE 22/12/14 Porcine Deltacoronavirus - Koch's Postulates Fulfilled. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Mar 27. The detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus from Guangdong Province in Southern China. Virus Res. 2016 Dec 2;226:71-84. Porcine deltacoronavirus: Overview of infection dynamics, diagnostic methods, prevalence and genetic evolution. Virus Res. 2016 Dec 2;226:50-59. Porcine deltacoronavirus infection: Etiology, cell culture for virus isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis. SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY - AVRIL 2014 - Clinical Signs Associated with Swine Deltacoronavirus in a Northeastern Nebraska Sow Herd.
NATIONAL HOG FARMER 02/11/15 Feed additives show varied results in reducing porcine delta coronavirus survival. There are currently three known coronaviruses that can affect the gastrointestinal health of pigs – transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine delta coronavirus. Although clinical signs produced by PDCoV are less severe than those caused by PEDV, both viruses are often found together in co-infections, are excreted in feces and can be transmitted via feed contaminated with swine feces.
Inclusion of certain additives in swine feed has been shown to provide growth performance benefits, may be used as alternatives to antibiotics and may control pathogens such as Salmonella. The goal of this study was to determine if feed additives, at recommended or twice the recommended concentrations, are effective in reducing the survival time of PDCoV in feed. A commercially available phase 2 nursery diet was obtained from Vita Plus of Madison, Wis. Conclusions. Veterinary Microbiology Volume 179, Issues 3–4, 30 September 2015, PCR-based retrospective evaluation of diagnostic samples for emergence of porcine deltacoronavirus in US swine. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE 14/03/16 Monitoring the Spread of Swine Enteric Coronavirus Diseases in the United States in the Absence of a Regulatory Framework.
Introduction. MBIO 10/03/15 Origin, Evolution, and Virulence of Porcine Deltacoronaviruses in the United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine Volume 123, 1 January 2016, Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds. A USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, United Statesb Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, United Statesc Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, United Statesd Ohio Department of Agriculture, Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, United States Received 21 July 2015, Revised 22 October 2015, Accepted 24 October 2015, Available online 3 November 2015 Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution Check access doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.10.018 Get rights and content.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine Volume 123, 1 January 2016, Characterization and evolution of porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States. Open Access. EFSA - 2014 - Scientific Opinion on porcine epidemic diarrhoea and emerging porcine deltacoronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Jul; 20(7): 1227–1230. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Deltacoronavirus in Pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. CDC EID - DEC 2015 - Porcine Deltacoronavirus in Mainland China. Suggested citation for this article. CDC EID - AOUT 2014 - Rapid Detection, Complete Genome Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Deltacoronavirus.
CDC EID - AVRIL 2015 - Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs. CDC EID - Volume 22, Number 4—April 2016. Au sommaire notamment: Porcine Deltacoronavirus, Thailand, 2015. EFSA 31/11/14 Scientific Opinion on porcine epidemic diarrhoea and emerging porcine deltacoronavirus. USDA/PORK CHECKOFF 18/04/14 Porcine DeltaCoronavirus Bioassay. BIOVET_CA 11/04/14 Nouveau Test SDCV PCR permettant de détecter le Delta coronavirus porcin (Swine Delta Coronavirus). Genome Announc. 2014 Mar-Apr; 2(2): e00278-14. Full-Length Genome Sequence of Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strain USA/IA/2014/8734. FARMS 16/04/14 Animal-based Research for PEDV Virus and Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
PIGSITE 23/04/14 Swine Novel Enteric Coronavirus Disease Outbreak Across US.