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La piste de la chauve-souris et Coronavirus COVID-19

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TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 11/02/21 The risk from SARS‐CoV‐2 to bat species in England and mitigation options for conservation field workers. NATURE 09/02/21 Evidence for SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses circulating in bats and pangolins in Southeast Asia. Animal sampling Acuminate Horseshoe bats (R. acuminatus) were captured from a Wildlife Sanctuary in the Chachoengsao Province, Thailand.

NATURE 09/02/21 Evidence for SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses circulating in bats and pangolins in Southeast Asia

Bats were released after measurements and samples were collected. Bats were identified morphometrically and species, sex, reproductive status, forearm length, and body mass were determined. Rectal swab and blood were collected from each individual bat and immediately put into Lysis buffer (bioMérieux, SA, France). The samples were transported on ice within 48 h and stored at −80 °C until further analysis at the Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Disease Health Science Centre (TRC-EID) Thailand. Nucleic acid extraction and CoV RNA detection Total nucleic acid was extracted from 1 ml of suspended rectal swab using easyMAG® platform (bioMérieux, SA, France) and eluted in 50 µl.

Genome characterization by NGS Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using NGS technology was performed on five nucleic acid specimens with relatively strong PCR positive signals. International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 102, January 2021, Bats in ecosystems and their Wide spectrum of viral infectious potential threats: SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses. Introduction Over the last decades of the Anthropocene, the role of wild animals and their ecosystems in the emergence and expansion of infectious diseases has public health's attention.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 102, January 2021, Bats in ecosystems and their Wide spectrum of viral infectious potential threats: SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses

Bats are especially important as they have been potentially related to the current evere cute espiratory yndrome oronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the previous emergence of Middle East espiratory yndrome oronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and the SARS-CoV epidemic in 2002 (Ahmad et al., 2020, Biscayart et al., 2020, Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2020a, Gutiérrez et al., 2020, Tiwari et al., 2020, Bonilla-Aldana et al., 2020b). Bats have populated earth for approximately 52 million years, serving as natural reservoirs for multiple viruses through the course of their existence (Simmons et al., 2008, Han et al., 2015). General characteristics of bats Figure 1. The Microchiroptera or microbats include over 930 species distributed throughout the entire planet with the exception of some islands and the poles.

WILDLIFE HEALTH AUSTRALIA - AOUT 2020 - Qualitative Risk Assessment - COVID-19 & Australian bats. NATURE 23/11/20 Coronaviruses closely related to the pandemic virus discovered in Japan and Cambodia - The viruses, both found in bats stored in laboratory freezers, are the first SARS-CoV-2 relatives to be found outside China. Two lab freezers in Asia have yielded surprising discoveries.

NATURE 23/11/20 Coronaviruses closely related to the pandemic virus discovered in Japan and Cambodia - The viruses, both found in bats stored in laboratory freezers, are the first SARS-CoV-2 relatives to be found outside China.

Researchers have told Nature they have found a coronavirus that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the pandemic, in horseshoe bats stored in a freezer in Cambodia. Meanwhile, a team in Japan has reported the discovery of another closely related coronavirus — also found in frozen bat droppings.

The viruses are the first known relatives of SARS-CoV-2 to be found outside China, which supports the World Health Organization’s search across Asia for the pandemic’s animal origin. NATURE 20/01/21 Lessons from the host defences of bats, a unique viral reservoir. PLOS 26/10/20 Coronaviruses in Brazilian bats: A matter of concern? Citation: Cibulski S, de Lima FES, Roehe PM (2020) Coronaviruses in Brazilian bats: A matter of concern?

PLOS 26/10/20 Coronaviruses in Brazilian bats: A matter of concern?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(10): e0008820. Editor: José Reck Jr., Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor, BRAZIL Published: October 26, 2020. PLOS 03/09/20 Possibility for reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to free-ranging wildlife: A case study of bats. Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the substantial public health, economic, and societal consequences of virus spillover from a wildlife reservoir.

PLOS 03/09/20 Possibility for reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to free-ranging wildlife: A case study of bats

Widespread human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also presents a new set of challenges when considering viral spillover from people to naïve wildlife and other animal populations. The establishment of new wildlife reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 would further complicate public health control measures and could lead to wildlife health and conservation impacts. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 28/07/20 Bats and humans during the SARS‐CoV‐2 outbreak: the case of bat‐coronavirus from Mexico. The novel SARS‐CoV‐2 coronavirus has attracted attention due to the high number of human cases around the world.

TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 28/07/20 Bats and humans during the SARS‐CoV‐2 outbreak: the case of bat‐coronavirus from Mexico

It has been proposed that this virus originated in bats, possibly transmitted to humans by an intermediate host, making bats a group of great interest during this outbreak. Almost 10% of the world’s bat species inhabit Mexico, and 14 previous novel CoVs have been recorded in Mexican bats. However, the phylogenetic relationships between these viruses and the novel coronavirus are unknown. The aim of this communication was therefore to describe the phylogenetic relationships between Mexican bat‐CoVs and SARS‐CoV‐2 . We showed that Mexican bat‐CoVs sequences are grouped into two genera, Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus , and the new coronavirus is an independent clade within Betacoronavirus .

THE TELEGRAPH 28/07/20 Coronaviruses linked to Sars-Cov-2 have been circulating in bats ‘for decades’, study finds. EUREKALERT 09/07/20 Bats offer clues to treating COVID-19. Bats are often considered patient zero for many deadly viruses affecting humans, including Ebola, rabies, and, most recently, the SARS-CoV-2 strain of virus that causes coronavirus.

EUREKALERT 09/07/20 Bats offer clues to treating COVID-19

Although humans experience adverse symptoms when afflicted with these pathogens, bats are remarkably able to tolerate viruses, and, additionally, live much longer than similar-sized land mammals. What are the secrets to their longevity and virus resistance? According to researchers at the University of Rochester, bats' longevity and capacity to tolerate viruses may stem from their ability to control inflammation, which is a hallmark of disease and aging. In a review article published in the journal Cell Metabolism, the researchers--including Rochester biology professors Vera Gorbunova and Andrei Seluanov--outline the mechanisms underlying bats' unique abilities and how these mechanisms may hold clues to developing new treatments for diseases in humans. Not so with bats. HIGH COUNTRY NEWS 07/07/20 North American bats may be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 - This is bad news for bats and humans.

After the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, late last year, scientists rushed to uncover the disease’s origins.

HIGH COUNTRY NEWS 07/07/20 North American bats may be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 - This is bad news for bats and humans.

Studies showed that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, likely arose in the Chinese horseshoe bat, jumped to another animal, and then spread to humans. Now, researchers are concerned that humans, ironically, might spread SARS-CoV-2 to a new host: bats in North America. This is bad news for bats if the virus turns out to be deadly. And if bats can transmit the virus back to people, it’s bad news for humans, too. As the virus continues to spread nationwide, scientists are ramping up their efforts to protect local bats. Politico_com 23/06/20 Fauci says White House told NIH to cancel funding for bat virus study - “Why was it canceled? It was canceled because the NIH was told to cancel it," Fauci said.

The backstory: The Trump administration abruptly cut funding for the research in April, with more than $350,000 in grant money remaining in EcoHealth’s 2020 grant.

politico_com 23/06/20 Fauci says White House told NIH to cancel funding for bat virus study - “Why was it canceled? It was canceled because the NIH was told to cancel it," Fauci said

The cancellation came shortly after reports had linked the project to the Wuhan Institute of Virology, a research facility in the city where the coronavirus first emerged — and one that has been the subject of unproven conspiracy theories about the pandemic's origins. EcoHealth Alliance scientists have collaborated with researchers from the Wuhan lab in the past, but were not doing so when the grant was ended. The NIH typically only cancels a grant when there is scientific misconduct or improper financial behavior, neither of which it has alleged in this case.

Instead, a top agency official told the EcoHealth Alliance at the time that "NIH does not believe the current project outcomes align with the program goals and agency priorities. " BIORXIV 31/05/20 Origin and cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses in China. NATURE 03/02/20 A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Coronaviruses have caused two large-scale pandemics in the past two decades, SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)8,9.

NATURE 03/02/20 A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

It has generally been thought that SARSr-CoV—which is mainly found in bats—could cause a future disease outbreak10,11. Here we report on a series of cases caused by an unidentified pneumonia disease outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei province, central China. This disease outbreak—which started from a local seafood market—has grown substantially to infect 2,761 people in China, is associated with 80 deaths and has led to the infection of 33 people in 10 additional countries as of 26 January 202012. Typical clinical symptoms of these patients are fever, dry cough, breathing difficulties (dyspnoea), headache and pneumonia. FRANCE 3 19/06/20 Coronavirus : n'ayons pas peur des chauves-souris. Elle est mystérieuse, nocturne, et associée à de nombreux mythes qui ne donnent pas d'elle une image reluisante. Mais cela suffit-il à faire d'elle un coupable idéal, et à augmenter encore un peu plus les peurs et les préjugés que l'on a sur la chauve-souris ?

De nombreuses voix s'élèvent aujourd'hui pour montrer et expliquer que les choses ne sont pas si simples. SCIENCE 01/06/20 NIH-halted study unveils its massive analysis of bat coronaviruses. Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center. An international team of scientists whose funding for research on bat coronaviruses was recently yanked by the U.S. government has published what it calls the most comprehensive analysis ever done of such viruses. In a preprint posted yesterday on bioRxiv, the researchers examine partial genetic sequences of 781 coronaviruses found in bats in China, more than one-third of which have never been published. Although the analysis cannot pinpoint the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, it does single out one genus, Rhinolophus, also known as Chinese horseshoe bats, as crucial to the evolution of coronaviruses.

Another co-author on the study is Shi Zheng-Li, the bat researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology who has received much scrutiny because of allegations by President Donald Trump and others—unsupported by any direct evidence to date—that the COVID-19 pandemic originated in her lab. NUMERAMA 02/06/20 Le coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 serait un hybride issu de la chauve-souris et du pangolin. LE MONDE 30/05/20 VIDEO : Coronavirus, Ebola, rage : pourquoi les chauves-souris sont à l’origine de tant de virus. USA TODAY 10/05/20 'What about COVID-20?' U.S. cuts funding to group studying bat coronaviruses in China. With coronavirus sweeping across the world, it's easy to forget the epicenter of the disease, Wuhan. Wuhan can be compared to Pittsburgh or Chicago.

USA TODAY The head of a research group that studies bat-borne coronaviruses in China similar to the COVID-19 strain that's ravaged the globe has warned that a U.S. government decision to cut funding to his organization imperils American public health. EcoHealth Alliance's research grant was abruptly terminated last month by the National Institutes of Health, the primary agency of the U.S. government responsible for biomedical and public health research. EcoHealth Alliance's research in China is focused on identifying and warning about coronaviruses dangerous to human health. "I'm really concerned about where this leaves us," said Peter Daszak, director of the New York-based organization, in a USA TODAY interview.

EUREKALERT 11/05/20 A close relative of SARS-CoV-2 found in bats offers more evidence it evolved naturally. There is ongoing debate among policymakers and the general public about where SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, came from. While researchers consider bats the most likely natural hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the origins of the virus are still unclear.

On May 10 in the journal Current Biology, researchers describe a recently identified bat coronavirus that is SARS-CoV-2's closest relative in some regions of the genome and which contains insertions of amino acids at the junction of the S1 and S2 subunits of the virus's spike protein in a manner similar to SAR-CoV-2. While it's not a direct evolutionary precursor of SARS-CoV-2, this new virus, RmYN02, suggests that these types of seemingly unusual insertion events can occur naturally in coronavirus evolution, the researchers say. The researchers identified RmYN02 from an analysis of 227 bat samples collected in Yunnan province, China, between May and October of 2019. CDC EID - JULY 2020 - Possible Bat Origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Disclaimer: Early release articles are not considered as final versions.

Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released. Author affiliations: The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (S.K.P. Lau, H.K.H. Luk, A.C.P. Wong, K.S.M. LE JDD 25/03/20 Une chauve-souris suspectée d'héberger le Covid-19 : voici pourquoi il faut surveiller ces animaux nocturnes. LEJDD 13/04/20 Chauves-souris, pangolins : ces animaux que l’on soupçonne un peu vite. 07h00 , le 13 avril 2020 La scène est presque familière tant elle a été évoquée. Marché humide de Huanan, dans la ville de Wuhan, province du Hubei, Chine.

BIORXIV 02/03/20 Comparative genomic analysis revealed specific mutation pattern between human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Bat-SARSr-CoV RaTG13. GLOBAL BIODEFENSE 19/02/20 Why It’s Important to Study Coronaviruses in African Bats. The current outbreak of a new coronavirus disease, named COVID-19, raises the question of where diseases like this come from and where the risks lie. By the middle of February almost 2000 people had died in this outbreak, which has also had a global economic impact. It is clear that the virus may have an animal reservoir.

In other words, it may be permanently found in a host species of animal, where it does not normally cause disease. Viruses can spill over from the host to other animals and humans. Evidence points to a possible initial spillover of the virus into humans and other animals in an animal market in Wuhan in China. Bats are prone to act as reservoir for viruses. Scientists on the continent do keep a watch by doing bio-surveillance and specifically looking for pieces of coronavirus genomes in bat species. If it’s closely related, it may be an indication of where the spillover of new viruses came from and whether it poses a risk of a disease outbreak. FRANCE INFO 20/02/20 Coronavirus Covid-19 : une morsure de chauve-souris en laboratoire est-elle à l'origine de l'épidémie ? Cette hypothèse a été avancée dans des tweets relayant une publication de deux chercheurs chinois. THESTAR_COM_MY 13/02/20 Aside from Covid-19, these viruses also go from bats to humans.

BFMTV 12/02/20 Indonésie: de la viande de chauve-souris toujours vendue malgré les risques liés au coronavirus. SCIENCES ET AVENIR 11/02/20 Coronavirus chinois : une étude révèle pourquoi les chauves-souris transportent des virus si dangereux. Bon nombre des épidémies virales les plus sévères de ces dernières années proviennent de la chauve-souris. Le SARS, le MERS, Ebola, Marburg et probablement aussi le coronavirus 2019-nCoV dont l'épidémie sévit en Chine depuis décembre 2019. Si toutes ces maladies prolifèrent dans le même réservoir, l'organisme de la chauve-souris, c'est peut-être parce que son système immunitaire très développé s'avère très favorable à la réplication des virus. Quand la maladie passe à un autre être vivant dont le système immunitaire est moins fort, comme les humains, alors les virus font des ravages mortels selon de récents travaux réalisés par l'Université de Berkeley et publiés dans la revue scientifique spécialisée eLife.

Certaines chauves-souris, y compris celles connues pour être la source d'infections transmissibles à l'humain, possèdent des systèmes immunitaires particulièrement puissants, toujours prêts à se défendre contre les virus. EUREKALERT 10/02/20 Coronavirus outbreak raises question: Why are bat viruses so deadly? It's no coincidence that some of the worst viral disease outbreaks in recent years -- SARS, MERS, Ebola, Marburg and likely the newly arrived 2019-nCoV virus -- originated in bats. A new University of California, Berkeley, study finds that bats' fierce immune response to viruses could drive viruses to replicate faster, so that when they jump to mammals with average immune systems, such as humans, the viruses wreak deadly havoc.

Some bats -- including those known to be the original source of human infections -- have been shown to host immune systems that are perpetually primed to mount defenses against viruses. SCMP 05/02/20 Coronavirus: still in the mood for bat? At Indonesia’s ‘Tomohon Extreme Market’ it’s on the menu. “Tomohon Extreme Market and other markets selling wildlife in Indonesia are potentially breeding grounds for the coronavirus,” said Professor R. Wasito, of the Veterinary Pathology Department of University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, who said the virus was known to exist in bats, pigs, cattle, wild birds, mammals and some fish.

BIORXIV 23/01/20 Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. EUREKALERT 29/01/20 Watching bat coronaviruses with next-generation sequencing. On January 21, the first case of the Wuhan coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, was diagnosed in the United States. The virus has killed at least 17 people in China and sickened hundreds, primarily in Asian countries. Coronaviruses (CoVs) in bats have been linked to that outbreak, as well as outbreaks of diseases like SARS and MERS. Next-generation sequencing may be used to monitor the virus and how it spreads. This study describes a targeted NGS approach that can increase sensitivity and reduce cost. FRANCE TELEVISIONS 29/01/20 Coronavirus : la consommation de chauve-souris à Wuhan est-elle à l'origine de l'épidémie en Chine ?

WIKIPEDIA - Viande de chauve-souris. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. LE MONDE 28/01/20 LES DECODEURS - Il n’est pas prouvé que le coronavirus provienne des serpents ou de la soupe de chauve-souris. LE PARISIEN 25/01/20 2019-nCoV : chauve-souris ou serpent ? Les différentes théories sur l’origine du virus. CNEWS 23/01/20 Serpents et chauve-souris à l'origine du coronavirus chinois ? L EXPRESS 23/01/20 Coronavirus 2019-nCoV, Sras : comment les chauves-souris propagent les épidémies.

VIROLOGICAL 22/01/20 nCoV’s relationship to bat coronaviruses & recombination signals (no snakes) MIRROR_CO_UK 23/01/20 Coronavirus could have been spread by bat soup after disturbing footage emerges. SWARAJYA 23/01/20 Wuhan Coronavirus Likely To Have Transmitted To People From Snakes And Bats In Wuhan Food Market: Report. LE MONDE 24/01/20 Le nouveau coronavirus aurait un ancêtre chez les chauves-souris.