NATURE - 1971 - Long term persistence of parathion in soil. BULLETIN OMS - 1960 - Studies of the genetics of resistance to parathion and malathion in the housefly. WIKIPEDIA ANGLOPHONE – Parathion. Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion and locally known as "Folidol", is an organophosphate compound.
It is a potent insecticide and acaricide. It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans. Its use is banned or restricted in many countries, and there are proposals to ban it from all use. Parathion-methyl "Parathion-methyl" (CAS#298-00-0), also known as methyl parathion or dimethyl parathion, was also developed and is marketed for similar uses. History Parathion was developed by Gerhard Schrader for the German trust IG Farben in the 1940s. Handling properties Industrial synthesis 2 (C2H5O)2P(S)SH + 3 Cl2 → 2 (C2H5O)2P(S)Cl + S2Cl2 + 2 HCl (C2H5O)2P(S)Cl + NaOC6H4NO2 → (C2H5O)2P(S)OC6H4NO2 + NaCl Applications As a pesticide, parathion is generally applied by spraying. Insecticidal activity Parathion acts on the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, but indirectly.
Safety WIKIPEDIA – Parathion. Neurotoxicology and Teratology Volume 31, Issue 1, January-February 2009, Developmental neurotoxicity of parathion: Progressive effects on serotonergic systems in adolescence and adulthood. Abstract Neonatal exposures to organophosphates that are not acutely symptomatic or that produce little or no cholinesterase inhibition can nevertheless compromise the development and later function of critical neural pathways, including serotonin (5HT) systems that regulate emotional behaviors.
We administered parathion to newborn rats on postnatal days (PN) 1–4 at doses spanning the threshold for detectable cholinesterase inhibition (0.1 mg/kg/day) and the first signs of loss of viability (0.2 mg/kg/day). In adolescence (PN30), young adulthood (PN60) and full adulthood (PN100), we measured radioligand binding to 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors, and to the 5HT transporter in the brain regions comprising all the major 5HT projections and 5HT cell bodies. Abbreviations 5HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin; 5HTT, 5HT transporter; ANOVA, analysis of variance; PN, postnatal day. Keywords. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2004;15(1):33-52. Toxicokinetic modeling of parathion and its metabolites in humans for the determination of biological reference values. EPA 02/08/99 Methyl Parathion Risk Management Decision. Current as of: August 2, 1999 (amended August 10, 1999) On This Page: Action EPA has accepted voluntary cancellation of many of the most significant food crop uses of methyl parathion, one of the most toxic and most widely used organophosphate pesticides.
Methyl parathion has been found to pose unacceptable dietary risks to children. Removing these crop uses considerably reduces risks to children through food, as well as risks to workers and the environment. Rationale Methyl parathion is one of the most toxic organophosphate pesticides. Uses Canceled and Maintained. Biotemas, 22 (3): 27-33, setembro de 2009 Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753) with respect to frond number and chlorophyll. Braz. J. Food Technol., VII BMCFB, junho 2009 Analysis of methyl parathion in tilapia filets using a simple solid phase extraction clean-up and GC-NPD. Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.46 no.3 Curitiba June 2003 Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti. Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti Marcelo Rubens Machado*; Edith Fanta Universidade Norte do Paraná; Avenida Paris, 675; 86041-140; Londrina - PR - Brazil.
Universidade Federal do Paraná; Departamento de Biologia Celular; C. P. 19031; 81531-970; Curitiba - PR - Brazil Gills are vital structures for fish, since they are the main site for gaseous exchange as well as partially responsible for osmorregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Key words: Gill, fish, methyl parathion, toxicity, morphology As brânquias são estruturas vitais para peixes, pois são o principal local de trocas gasosas, assim como parcialmente responsáveis pela osmorregulação, pelo equilíbrio ácido-básico, pela excreção de compostos nitrogenados e pela gustação.
Fish gills play vital roles, since they are the main site of gaseous exchanges (Hughes, 1966; Hughes, 1982). Biological material Toxicity tests. OMS - 2004 - Methyl Parathion in Drinking-water. INRS - JANV 2007 - Parathion - fiche toxicologique.