WIKIPEDIA – California wine. California wine is wine made in the U.S. state of California.
Nearly three-quarters the size of France, California accounts for nearly 90 percent of American wine production. The production in California alone is one third larger than that of Australia. If California were a separate country, it would be the world's fourth-largest wine producer. Today there are more than 1,200 wineries in the state, ranging from small boutique wineries to large corporations like E & J Gallo Winery with distribution across the globe. History Spanish mission of St. Phylloxera and Prohibition The late 19th century also saw the advent of the phylloxera epidemic which had already ravaged French and other European vineyards. Modern era A red wine from the notable Californian wine region of Napa Valley. The Robert Mondavi Winery was designed to reflect the winemaking history of the Spanish missions.
GREENPEACE 18/06/01 Genetic Engineering Is Risky Business For California Wine Industry. Media release - June 18, 2001 California wine makers will face massive consumer rejection if they accept genetically engineered (GE) grapes, according to a just-released report by Greenpeace.
More than 30 requests for field trials of engineered grapes have already been granted in California and other states, including research into GE grapes resistant to Pierce's Disease. A Greenpeace survey of British retailers representing 80 percent of the UK's wine sales found that all would refuse to carry wine made from gene-altered grapes. Britain is the largest export market for California wine, consuming 30 percent of the state's wine exports. The report also includes a compilation of U.S. public opinion polls that show increasing concern among Americans about GE crops. "Consumers at home and abroad say they don't want genetically engineered wine," said Jeanne Merrill of Greenpeace. The report also found widespread rejection of genetic engineering elsewhere in Europe. University of California - California Wine Grape Growers’ Use of Powdery Mildew Forecasts. 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods - ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC PEST REFUGES HAMPER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF M.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 15/09/00 Economic Impact of Eutypa on the California Wine Grape Industry. LODIGROWERS - Eutypa dieback in Northern California Vineyards. Welcome to part two of a three part Coffee Shop series on understanding and managing trunk diseases in Lodi vineyards.
In part one of this series we discussed how to identify trunk canker diseases, practices to prevent them, and management strategies for new and established vineyards. Today, we will dig deeper into the subject and learn about the diseases’ historical development in California, how the disease impacts vineyards, it’s symptoms, how it spreads among grape vines and across crops, and we will also identify some resistant winegrape cultivars. These two Coffee Shop articles were written by Kendra Baumgartner, PhD and Renaud Travadon, PhD, with grant funding from the USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative Most vineyards in California are likely infected with trunk diseases (wood-canker). The main diseases are Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback. Figure 1 Extensive ‘gummosis’ on the trunk of an apricot tree with Eutypa dieback.
Figure 2. WINE INSTITUTE - Issues and Policy. Special Notices Pierce's Disease Brochure: A Decade of Progress Summer 2009 Pierce's Disease Newsletter.
PRACTICAL WINERY & VINEYARD JOURNAL - MAI/JUIN 2004 - Formidable pest spreading through California vineyards. Population cycles Vine mealybug population cycles and its distribution on vines can vary dramatically, depending on temperatures and vine condition.
While it can be found on all parts of the vine at any time of the growing season, there are clear dispersal and abundance patterns that influence the amount of damage and the effectiveness of chemical and biological controls. For example, in the Coachella Valley, most of the vine mealybug population overwinters on the roots and lower trunk sections. As temperatures warm, populations rapidly increase reaching a peak in April and May.
Accompanying the increased density is the pest’s movement up the vine, from the roots and lower trunk to the leaves and grape clusters. Management becomes a race between the table grape harvest (May-June) and the time when mealybugs reach the clusters. In the Central Coast and North Coast, VMB appears to follow a pattern similar to San Joaquin Valley. This pheromone has now been synthetically produced. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - MAI 2008 - California Wine and the EU Wine Policy Reform. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING RESOURCE CENTER - APRIL 2008 - Recent Trends in the California Wine Grape Industry. USDA FRANCE 13/01/09 L’ALIANCE VITICULTURE DURABLE DE LA CALIFORNIE (CSWA) LANCE LE PROGRAMME CERTIFICATION VITICULTURE DURABLE. California Agriculture 62(1):19-23. DOI: 10.3733/ca.v062n01p19. January-March 2008. Post-emergence herbicides are cost effective.
Peer-reviewed research article Post-emergence herbicides are cost effective for vineyard floor management on the Central Coast authors Laura Tourte, UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE) Richard Smith Larry J.
Bettiga Tiffany Bensen, Research Associate Jason Smith, Valley Farm Management Daryl Salm publication information California Agriculture 62(1):19-23. Author affiliations L. Abstract Central Coast growers are under increasing scrutiny and regulatory pressure to manage herbicide use because of their farmland's proximity to the Monterey Bay and National Marine Sanctuary. Full text Growers along California's Central Coast are under increasing pressure to keep herbicides from contaminating groundwater, and in turn, the Monterey Bay and National Marine Sanctuary. Vineyard floor management Vineyard floors are managed to facilitate cultural practices and reduce competitive effects from noncrop vegetation. Weeds compete with grapevines for water, soil nutrients and sometimes sunlight.
Research site. PRACTICAL WINERY & VINEYARD - MARCH/APRIL 2004 - Progress toward reduced-risk pest management. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - CULTIVATING CALIFORNIA’S VINEYARDS. UCANR - Planning for herbicide-resistance management in orchards and vineyards of California.