SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 23/02/21 Scaling of contact networks for epidemic spreading in urban transit systems. Metro contact network Smart card data only provide entry and exit information on a trip.
To gain insights into how travelers come in contact with others during travel, we develop a simulation model based on the observed metro network layout, demand profile, and mobility patterns. The simulation constructs high-resolution metro contact networks (MCNs) by first sampling passenger arrivals at each metro station and their trip destinations, then calculating if two individuals will come into contact based on their trip profiles, and finally assigning expected contact duration between each pair of individuals (The detailed description of the simulation is presented in Methods).
The inputs to the simulation are the number of travelers (N), the time period of interest, the operational timetable and the metro network layout. The simulation then produces a \(N\times N\) matrix describing the physical contact pattern between each pair of individual travelers. WIKIPEDIA - Mass mortality event. Incident that kills a vast number of a single species in a short period of time A mass mortality event (MME) is an incident that kills a vast number of individuals of a single species in a short period of time. The event may put a species at risk of extinction or upset an ecosystem. This is distinct from the mass die-off associated with short lived and synchronous emergent insect taxa which is a regular and non-catastrophic occurrence. Causes of MME's include disease and human-related activities such as pollution.
Climatic extremes and other environmental influences such as oxygen stress in aquatic environments play a role, as does starvation. In many MME's there are multiple stressors. An analysis of such events from 1940 to 2012 found that these events have become more common for birds, fish and marine invertebrates, but have declined for amphibians and reptiles and not changed for mammals. Known mass mortality events PHYS_ORG 12/09/19 The 'pathobiome'—a new understanding of disease. Cefas and University of Exeter scientists have presented a novel concept describing the complex microbial interactions that lead to disease in plants, animals and humans.
Microbial organisms and viruses cause many diseases of plants and animals. They can also help protect from disease, for example the complex communities of microbes in the human gut, which are very important for our health. However, very little is known about these microbes and how they cause and prevent disease. The pathobiome concept opens a door on this unexplored world of microbial diversity and how it controls all other organisms on the planet. NATURE 22/02/19 On the predictability of infectious disease outbreaks. THE LANCET 17/10/18 Estimating the cost of vaccine development against epidemic infectious diseases: a cost minimisation study.
Case one: risk assessment of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks In this case, a HFMD outbreak was defined as an abnormal increase in the severity and mortality of HFMD within the next month. BBN was used to assess HFMD outbreak risk in Hunan Province, China based on virus detection rate and demographic, socioeconomic and meteorological factors. It should be noted that the study period was during the peak months (April–July, Sep–Nov) of HFMD in Hunan32, and the study unit was the county.
Data sources. JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC DYNAMICS - 2014 - Managing the Endogenous Risk of Disease Outbreaks with Non-Constant Background Risk. Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists - 2013 College Science Week Scientific Meeting 11–13 July 2013 Epidemiology Chapter proceedings, [PDF][PDF] Epidemiology Chapter proceedings QTG Coast, S Paradise - researchgate.net.
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH - AOUT 2008 - Exploring the Utilization of Geographic Information Systems in Health Promotion and Public Health. ALPHAGALILEO 28/03/17 About time! Predicting midge seasonality key to reducing livestock diseases. Ecologists at the UK-based Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) have led a study which informs optimal strategies for control of devastating midge-borne diseases like bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus that affect cattle and sheep in the UK and beyond.
Adult female midges (males do not bite) are responsible for infecting farm animals with numerous diseases and are active and abundant between Spring and Autumn. This activity period varies across the UK and Europe, and the severity of disease is linked to how many midges occur at peak season. PLOS 21/03/18 Xenosurveillance reflects traditional sampling techniques for the identification of human pathogens: A comparative study in West Africa. Abstract Background Novel surveillance strategies are needed to detect the rapid and continuous emergence of infectious disease agents.
Ideally, new sampling strategies should be simple to implement, technologically uncomplicated, and applicable to areas where emergence events are known to occur. To this end, xenosurveillance is a technique that makes use of blood collected by hematophagous arthropods to monitor and identify vertebrate pathogens. Mosquitoes are largely ubiquitous animals that often exist in sizable populations. FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH 18/12/17 Survey on the Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Infectious Diseases Surveillance: Rapid Expansion of European National Capacities, 2015–2016. Introduction In the European Union (EU), surveillance of 53 communicable diseases, healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance is conducted jointly by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the member states based on national case notification in accordance with EU case-definitions which are combining clinical and laboratory criteria (1).
In addition, voluntary reporting to ECDC of molecular typing data on selected infectious agents and antimicrobial resistance determinants is encouraged for enhanced surveillance and epidemic response (2). Many EU countries use molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and gene sequencing. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES 11/09/17 Lessons from a decade of individual-based models for infectious disease transmission: a systematic review (2006-2015) The number of published IBMs for infectious disease transmission and the diversity of disease topics are increasing.
Our systematic search identified 698 unique papers between 2006 and 2015. Most included articles were applied to unspecified close-contact infections or to influenza, though IBMs for other air-, saliva-, vector-borne and sexually transmitted infections are emerging. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 29/05/17 Context is Everything: Harmonization of Critical Food Microbiology Descriptors and Metadata for Improved Food Safety and Surveillance. 1Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Canada 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Canada 3National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Canada 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada 5British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory, Canada Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions.
High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS) subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called “contextual data”) to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment. ILAR JOURNAL 31/08/15 Pathogens, Commensal Symbionts, and Pathobionts: Discovery and Functional Effects on the Host. PLOS 17/01/17 Review of Participatory Epidemiology Practices in Animal Health (1980-2015) and Future Practice Directions. Abstract In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE) activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects.
The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012). OMS - 2017 - Integrated biological–behavioural surveillance in pandemic-threat warning systems. BMC MEDICINE 19/12/16 Modernising epidemic science: enabling patient-centred research during epidemics. Integrated clinical data capture Currently, outbreak response is characterised by an artificial separation of the public health, clinical and scientific response. This is an understandable consequence of engrained disciplinary divisions and regulatory frameworks but is inefficient given that the ultimate aims of all groups are to improve patient outcomes and control the epidemic. Under even a cursory examination, it is clear that the boundaries between the public health, clinical and scientific response are blurred, with the necessary evidence overlapping and being collected from the same patient.
What distinguishes research from clinical or public health practice is often difficult to define, and rather than trying to draw arbitrary boundaries, we should aim to integrate the data needs of all disciplines. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA via RESEARCHGATE - SEPT 2015 - Chapitre d'ouvrage : Global Health Security and the Pathogenic Imaginary. UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY 05/12/13 Présentation : A One Health perspective on infectious disease and food security. PNAS - 2016 - Opinion: Specimen collections should have a much bigger role in infectious disease research and response. Author Affiliations When public health officials become aware of the first signs of a disease outbreak, they need to determine a few critical things as quickly as possible.
What’s the disease agent? How did it get here? Interface (Botucatu) vol.19 no.52 Botucatu Jan./Mar. 2015 Diseases neglected by the media: a theoretical approach. Introdução Entende-se que, nos dias de hoje, em que a visibilidade se torna condição central para conhecimento público de determinadas mazelas na sociedade, o estudo da exposição midiática e da audiência a determinados temas poderia identificar as condições de desenvolvimento de círculos de atenção social – essenciais à produção e reprodução de sentidos e às ações coletivas.
Para tanto, é importante caracterizar escalas de valoração e dinâmicas de reprodução que implicam a magnitude conferida aos temas mais enaltecidos, assim como, no sentido inverso, as condições eventualmente negligenciadas por conta de sua débil visibilidade e sustentabilidade política. Dessa maneira, acredita-se que o espaço destacado para doenças ou condições de menor apelo político-midiático merece ser devidamente identificado, descrito e analisado por metodologias especificamente destacadas para tanto. International Journal on Advances in Life Sciences, vol 5 no 3 & 4, year 2013 One Health Information and Communication Technologies - How digital humanities contribute to public health. UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK - 2014 - Présentation : Epidemic spreading is always possible on regular networks.
Universit`a di Torino 04/04/14 An ecoepidemic food chain with the disease at the intermediate trophic level. Trends Ecol Evol. May 2014; 29(5): 270–279. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection. PLOS 15/10/14 Evaluation of Local Media Surveillance for Improved Disease Recognition and Monitoring in Global Hotspot Regions. Abstract Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children’s Hospital), is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems.
In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS) pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Editor: Michelle L. Received: May 19, 2014; Accepted: September 14, 2014; Published: October 15, 2014 Copyright: © 2014 Schwind et al. Introduction File S1. PLOS 30/10/14 Internet and Free Press Are Associated with Reduced Lags in Global Outbreak Reporting. EHP - 2014 - Evaluating Uncertainty to Strengthen Epidemiologic Data for Use in Human Health Risk Assessments. EHP - 2014 - Thinking One Step Ahead: Strategies to Strengthen Epidemiological Data for Use in Risk Assessment. WORLD VETERINARY ASSOCIATION 20/03/14 World Veterinary Association Position on One Health Concept.
WAGENINGEN UNIVERSITY 28/10/14 Thèse en ligne : EFFECTIVE STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT IN AGRI-FOOD GOVERNANCE AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT Au sommaire: Chapter 1 General introduction 7 Chapter 2 Expert involvement in policy development: a systematic review of curre. PLOS 16/03/15 The Causes and Consequences of Changes in Virulence following Pathogen Host Shifts. Abstract Emerging infectious diseases are often the result of a host shift, where the pathogen originates from a different host species. Virulence—the harm a pathogen does to its host—can be extremely high following a host shift (for example Ebola, HIV, and SARs), while other host shifts may go undetected as they cause few symptoms in the new host. Here we examine how virulence varies across host species by carrying out a large cross infection experiment using 48 species of Drosophilidae and an RNA virus.
The Lancet. 08/2015; Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition. Royal Geographical Society - 2014 - The tactile topologies of Contagion. Disease Surveillance On-Line - Public Health Agency of Canada/Surveillance des maladies en direct - Agence de la santé publique du Canada. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 12 July 2011 vol. 366 no. 1573 1933-1942 Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary.
+ Author Affiliations + Author Notes ↵† Present address: Harper Adams University College, Newport Shropshire, TF10 8NB, UK. *↵ Author for correspondence (email@example.com). Abstract Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food safety, national economies, biodiversity and the rural environment. New challenges, including climate change, regulatory developments, changes in the geographical concentration and size of livestock holdings, and increasing trade make this an appropriate time to assess the state of knowledge about the impact that diseases have and the ways in which they are managed and controlled. 1.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy January 2012, Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control me. Food Control 17 (2006) 825–837 Use of epidemiologic data to measure the impact of food safety control programs. Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2012 (2012), Environmental Determinants of Chronic Disease and Medical Approac. KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY - 2012 - Thèse en ligne : UTILIZING AGENT BASED SIMULATION AND GAME THEORY TECHNIQUES TO OPTIMIZE AN IND. Environmental Health 2013, 12:6 Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiol. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2001, 42(Suppl 1):S11-S16 Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Definitions on epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology [1,4,2]. FASEB - JUIN 2005 - The epidemiological revolution of the 20th century.